AMS 315 • What is Mental Health? Psychology, Self, & American Culture-W
3:30 PM-5:00 PM
In our fast-paced and rootless modern society, treatment for mental illness can become a means of either pacifying discontented individuals or of rehabilitating them to function more effectively in positions actually precarious to their mental health. This course will consider the experience of mental health and illness in a culture that obscures a picture of true mental health (which might include such aspects as social connectedness and spirituality) and devalues activities and perceptions that might contribute to a more authentic experience of fulfillment and satisfaction for the individual. Visions of mental health and the good life are poorly articulated in American culture and are circumscribed by unrealistic ideals of material abundance as well as total personal independence and control of ones life. Confusion surrounding what the good life might be is only compounded by divisions within the mental health fields, including the rivalry between biological and environmental understandings of mental and emotional problems and the increasing explanatory power of psychopharmacological treatment which often prevails over social or cultural formulations. By constructing mental illnesses as distinct biological entities with precise quantitative characteristics, both mental health professionals and members of American society neglect the contribution of social and cultural values to illness. The course will examine these trends and will evaluate alternative models to understanding mental health. Authors like R.D. Laing and Thomas Szasz have been fundamental contributors to the anti-psychiatry movement which began in the 60s and has maintained influence into the present. These critics and others point to the socially constructed nature of diagnosis, to the social control mechanisms implicit in social categorization, and to the inadequacy of psychotherapy in the face of such deeply ingrained social problems. In addition to reading direct criticism of the field of psychology and of the processes of diagnosis and treatment, students will read literary works that attempt to capture the experience of mental illness. By considering such works as Charlotte Perkins Gilmans The Yellow Wallpaper, Sylvia Plaths Ariel, and Joanne Greenbergs I Never Promised You a Rose Garden, students will see vividly illustrated the parallel tensions involved in the experience of mental illness and the conflicts presented by treatment attempts. The examination of such works will also afford the opportunity to consider the role of factors like gender and socioeconomic status in the experience of mental distress. Finally, students will read several works including Cushmans Constructing the Self: Constructing America, Schumakers The Age of Insanity, and Laschs The Culture of Narcissism which explore aspects of American society that contribute to individual and cultural identity and to the crisis in mental health care and treatment. These sources will provide both a historical and cultural context from which to understand our current state of psychological concerns.
Schumaker, John F.The Age of Insanity: Modernity and Mental Health. Greenberg, Joanne. I Never Promised You a Rose Garden. Plath, Sylvia. Ariel. Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. The Yellow Wallpaper. Cushman, Philip. Constructing the self, Constructing America: a cultural history of psychotherapy. Lasch, Christopher. The Culture of Narcissism: American life in an age of diminishing expectations. Course Packet, excerpts from: Herman, Ellen. The Romance of American Psychology : political culture in the age of experts. Richardson, Frank C. et al. Re-envisioning Psychology: Moral Dimensions of Theory and Practice. Luhrmann, Tanya. Of Two Minds : the growing disorder in American psychiatry. May, Rollo. Mans Search for Himself. Middlebrook, Diane Wood. Her husband : Hughes and Plath--a marriage. Szasz, Thomas. The Myth of Mental Illness. Hillman, James and Ventura, Michael. Weve had a Hundred Years of Psychotherapy and the World is Getting Worse. Riesman, David. The Lonely Crowd: a study of the changing American character. Laing, R.D. The Divided Self : an existential study in sanity and madness. Articles, including: Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Self-Reliance. Conrad, P. (1992) Medicalization and Social Control. Films One Flew over the Cuckoos Nest Frontline: Welcome to Happy Valley