E 379S • Senior SeminarLexicography: The Art of Dictionary-Making-W
2:00 PM-3:00 PM
Did you know that the first English dictionary, A Table of Alphabeticall of Hard Usual English Words, was published by Robert Cawdrey in 1604? Although later dictionary editors were less enthusiastic about doubling letters than Cawdrey was, the history of dictionary making has been a complexand sometimes controversialprocess involving attempts to provide guidance to the general public about standard, word meanings, etymology, and usage. After a short overview of the history of English dictionaries, which have evolved from short glossaries of "hard words" (technical terms and difficult vocabulary items) to works that attempt to capture most of the vocabulary of English, we will look in detail at how dictionaries are constructed. Topics we will cover include how words are defined, how etymologies (or word histories) are constructed, and how dictionary editors attempt to meet the needs of various audiences, including children, non-native speakers of English, and English-speaking adults, while simultaneously trying to construct dictionaries as records of the English language as it is used. We will also look at how dictionaries are related to other reference works, such as encyclopedias, and at how dictionaries are changing in the rapidly evolving world of computer technology. I hope to provide a guest speaker who can talk about career opportunities in lexicography and reference publishing and to take the class on a virtual field trip in which we will explore various dictionaries on the World Wide Web and see that they not only recapture early traditions of the lone lexicographer like Cawdrey compiling a glossary of hard words, but that they also exploit World Wide Web technology in ways earlier lexicographers could hardly have imagined, for example, by linking standard dictionary definitions to more extensive encyclopedia-type material, or by using animation to help define terms in American Sign Language.
1. Dictionary-type definitions of several English words with 3-4-page commentary on lexicographical methods and choices in writing the definitions (30%). A draft will be required. 2. End-of-semester 15-20-page paper (50%) and short oral presentation (15%). A draft will be required. 3. Class participation (5%)
1. Book: Sidney I. Landau, Dictionaries: the Art and Craft of Lexicography. Cambridge University Press (2001 edition) 2. Course packet with short readings from popular and somewhat more scholarly works (e.g., a selection from Elisabeth Murray's Caught in the Web of Words, a book about the making of the Oxford English Dictionary and short articles on how to define words)