19th-Century Field List: Primary Texts


In consultation with their committee members, students will prepare thirty or more of the following primary "texts" for their long-nineteenth-century field area examination; again, the breakdown should be roughly two-thirds for their area of emphasis (Romantic or Victorian), one-third for the other.  Reasonable substitutions for specific novels by a given novelist are acceptable, while the poetry selections for a given poet are intended to be taken as a single "text" in terms of the total count.  For drama, some familiarity is desirable, especially an acquaintance with the predominantly melodramatic mode of the era.




Austen: Pride and Prejudice

C. Bronte: Jane Eyre

E. Bronte: Wuthering Heights

Conrad: Heart of Darkness

Dickens: Bleak House

Eliot: Middlemarch

Hardy: Jude the Obscure

Kipling: Kim

Scott: Waverley

M. Shelley: Frankenstein

Thackeray: Vanity Fair

Trollope: Barchester Towers

Wilde: The Picture of Dorian Gray




Arnold: "The Scholar Gypsy," "Dover Beach," "Stanzas from the Grand Chartreuse," "The Buried Life," "To Marguerite"

Blake: "Songs of Innocence and Experience," "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell," "Visions of the Daughters of Albion"

E.B. Browning: Sonnets from the Portuguese, Aurora Leigh (bks. I and V), "The Runaway Slave at Pilgrim's Point"

R. Browning: "My Last Duchess," "Porphyria's Lover," "Fra Lippo Lippi," "The Bishop Orders His Tomb at St. Praxed's Church," "Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came," "Caliban Upon Setebos"

Byron: Don Juan (Cantos 1 and 2), Childe Harold's Pilgrimage

Coleridge, "Frost at Midnight," "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner," "Kubla Khan," "Dejection: An Ode," "Frost at Midnight," "To William Wordsworth," "This Lime Tree Bower"

Hemans: "Casabianca," "The Homes of England," "The Graves of a Household"

Hopkins: "Spring and Fall," "As Kingfishers Catch Fire," "The Windhover," "Pied Beauty," "God's Grandeur," "That Nature is a Heraclitean Fire and of the comfort of the Resurrection," "I wake and feel the fell of dark, not day," "No worst, there is none," "The Wreck of the Deutschland"

Keats: Odes, Sonnets, "Hyperion," "The Fall of Hyperion," "The Eve of St. Agnes"

C. Rossetti: The Goblin Market

D.G. Rossetti: "The Blessed Damozel"

P. Shelley: "Ode to the West Wind," "Ozymandias," "The Cloud," "To A Skylark," "Adonais," "The Triumph of Life"

C. Smith: "Beachy Head"

Tennyson: In Memoriam, "The Lady of Shalott," "Ulysses," "Tithonus," "The Lotus Eaters," "Locksley Hall,"

Wordsworth, "Lines Written in Early Spring," "The Tables Turned," "There was a Boy," "Resolution and Independence," "Tintern Abbey," Lucy Poems, "Intimations of Immortality," "Michael," "The Solitary Reaper," "Elegiac Stanzas," The Prelude (1805; bks. I, VI, and XII)




Arnold: Preface to Poems (1853), Culture and Anarchy (selections), "Function of Criticism at the Present Time"

Carlyle: Sartor Resartus, Past and Present (selections)

Coleridge: Biographia Literaria (chs. 13-20 and 22)

Darwin: On the Origin of Species (selections)

De Quincey: Confessions of an English Opium Eater

Hazlitt: "Wordsworth" (from Lectures on the English Poets), "On Gusto"

Jeffrey: Contributions to the Edinburgh Review

Lamb: Essays of Elia

Martineau: Autobiography (selections)

Mill: On Liberty, The Subjection of Women (selections), Autobiography (selections)

H. More: Essays

Morris: Hopes and Fears for Art

Newman: The Idea of a University, Apologia Pro Vita Sua (selections)

Pater: Renaissance

Prince: The History of Mary Prince: A West Indian Slave

Ruskin: "Storm Cloud of the Nineteenth Century," Sesame and Lilies (selections), Stones of Venice (selections), "Of the Pathetic Fallacy" (Modern Painters, v. 3)

P. Shelley: Defense of Poetry

Wordsworth: Preface to Lyrical Ballads (1800)

Wilde: "Decay of Lying"




Barrie: Peter Pan

Boucicault: The Octoroon

Byron: Manfred

Collins: The Woman in White

Jerrold: The Rent-Day

Pinero: The Second Mrs. Tanqueray

Polidori: Vampyre

Shaw: Mrs. Warren's Profession

P. Shelley: Prometheus Unbound

Wilde: The Importance of Being Earnest

Wordsworth: The Borderers


Nineteenth-Century Field List:  Secondary Texts (foundational/transformative)


In consultation with their committee members, students will prepare 20-30 of the following secondary texts for their long-nineteenth-century field area exam; depending on their emphasis in either Romantic or Victorian, students should choose roughly two-thirds of their list in their primary area of focus.  Some substitutions of texts for a given author will be allowed, and over time we expect to include some key articles and to indicate chapters of especial importance.


Abrams, M.H. The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition. 1953.

. Natural Supernaturalism. 1973.

Adams, James Eli. Dandies and Saints. 1995.

Altick, Richard. The Shows of London. 1978.

Armstrong, Isobel. Victorian Poetry: Poetry, Poetics and Politics. 1993.

Armstrong, Nancy. Desire and Domestic Fiction: A Political History of the Novel. 1987.

Bakhtin, Mikhail. The Dialogic Imagination. 1981.

Bate, Jonathan. Romantic Ecology: Wordsworth and the Environmental Tradition. 1991.

Beer, Gillian. Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot and NineteenthCentury Fiction. 1983.

Brantlinger, Patrick. Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, 1830-1914. 1988.

Brooks, Peter. The Melodramatic Imagination. 1976.

---. Reading for the Plot. 1984.

Buckley, Jerome. The Victorian Temper: A Study in Victorian Culture. 1951.

Butler, Marilyn. Romantics, Rebels, and Reactionaries. 1982.

Chandler, James. England in 1819. 1998.

Curran, Stuart. Poetic Form and British Romanticism. 1986.

Connell, Philip. Romanticism, Economics, and the Question of 'Culture.' 2001.

De Man, Paul. Blindness and Insight. 1983.

Duncan, Ian. Scott's Shadow. 2008.

Ferguson, Frances. Solitude and the Sublime. 1992.

Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. 1975.

---. The History of Sexuality: I. The Will to Knowledge. 1976.

Houghton, Walter. The Victorian Frame of Mind: 18301870. 1957.

Kermode, Frank. The Romantic Image. 1957.

Kiely, Robert. The Romantic Novel in England. 1972.

Kroeber, Karl. Ecological Literary Criticism. 1994.

Gallagher, Catherine. The Industrial Reformation of English Fiction: Social Discourse and Narrative Form, 18321867. 1985.

Gilbert, Sandra, and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the NineteenthCentury Literary Imagination. 1979.

Feltes, Norman N. Modes of Production of Victorian Novels. 1986.

Langbaum, Robert. The Poetry of Experience: The Dramatic Monologue in Modern Literary Tradition. 1957.

Leavis, F.R. The Great Tradition. 1948.

Levine, George. The Realistic Imagination: English Fiction from Frankenstein to Lady Chatterley. 1981.

Lukacs, Georg. The Historical Novel. 1962.

Lynch, Deirdre. The Economy of Character. 1998.

Marcus, Steven. The Other Victorians. 1966.

McClintock, Anne. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality. 1995.

McGann, Jerome. The Beauty of Inflections. 1985.

. The Poetics of Sensibility. 1996.

Miller, David A. The Novel and the Police. 1988.

Miller, J. Hillis. The Disappearance of God: Five Nineteenth Century Writers. 1963.

Paulson, Robert. Representations of Revolution. 1982.

Poovey, Mary. Making a Social Body. 1995.

Rajan, Tillotoma. The Supplement of Reading. 1990.

Ritvo, Harriet.  The Animal Estate: The English and Other Creatures in the Victorian Age. 1987.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. 1978.

Sedgwick, Eve. Between Men. 1985.

Simpson, David. Romanticism, Nationalism, and the Revolt Against Theory. 1993.

Simpson, Michael. Closet Performances: Political Exhibition and Prohibition in the Dramas of Byron and Shelley. 1998.

Showalter, Elaine. A Literature of Their Own: British Women Novelists from Bronte to Lessing. 1977.

Trumpener, Katie. Bardic Nationalism. 1997.

Williams, Raymond. Culture and Society. 1958.

. The Country and the City. 1976.

Wolfson, Susan. Borderlines. 2006.

Woloch, Alex. The One vs. The Many. 2003.

Woodring, Carl. Politics in English Romantic Poetry. 1970.


19th Century: Selected Faculty Publications


Baker, Samuel.  "The Maritime Georgic and the Lake Poet Empire of Culture."  ELH: English Literary History 75 (2008): 531-63.


---.  Written on the Water: British Romanticism and the Maritime Empire of Culture.  Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009.


Bump, Jerome.  Gerard Manley Hopkins.  Boston: G.K. Hall, 1982.


---.  "The Victorian Radicals: Time, Typology, and Ontology in Hopkins, Pusey, and M�ller."  Victorian Religious Discourse: Currents and Crosscurrents."  Ed. Jude Nixon.  New York: MacMillan, 2004.  27-50.


Christian, George Scott.  "�Something heroic is still expected�: Realism and Comic Heroism in The Claverings."  LIT: Literature, Interpretation, Theory 14.3 (2003): 205-22. 


---.  "�They Lost the Whole�: Telling Historical (Un)Truth in Barnaby Rudge."  Dickens Studies Annual: Essays in Victorian Fiction 32 (2002): 49-64.


Cooper, Andrew.  Doubt and Identity in Romantic Poetry.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.


___.  "Freedom from Blake's Book of Urizen."  Studies in Romanticism (2009).


Cvetkovich, Ann.  Mixed Feelings: Feminism, Mass Culture, and Victorian Sensationalism.  New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1992.


Ferreira-Buckley, Linda, ed. (with S. Michael Halloran).  Hugh Blair's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2005.


Feirreira-Buckley, Linda.  On the Origins of English Studies: The Influence of Rhetoric on Victorian Education, Language Books, and Nonfiction Prose Writers.  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 2009.


Harlow, Barbara, ed. (with Mia Carter).  Imperialism and Orientalism: A Documentary Sourcebook.  Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.


Heinzelman, Kurt.  The Economics of Imagination.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980.


Hoad, Neville.  "Cosmetic Surgeons of the Social: Darwin, Freud and Wells and the Limits of Sympathy on The Island of Dr. Moreau."  Compass: The Culture and Politics of an Emotion.  Ed. Lauren Berlant.  New York: Routledge, 2004.


MacDuffie, Allen.  "Irreversible Transformations: Robert Louis Stevenson's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Scottish Energy Science."  Representations 96 (2006).


---.  "Joseph Conrad's Geographies of Energy."  ELH: English Literary History 76 (2009).


MacKay, Carol Hanbery.  Creative Negativity: Four Victorian Exemplars of the Female Quest.  Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.


___.  Soliloquy in Nineteenth-Century Fiction: Consciousness Creating Itself.  London: Macmillan, 1987.