Skip Navigation
UT wordmark
College of Liberal Arts wordmark
mes masthead
Kamran Scot Aghaie, Chair CAL 528 | 204 W 21st St F9400 | Austin, TX 78712-1029 • 512-471-3881

Stephennie Mulder

Assistant Professor Ph.D.

Stephennie Mulder

Contact

Interests

Islamic Art and Architecture

MES 342 • Arts Of Islam, 650-1500

42125 • Fall 2014
Meets MWF 200pm-300pm DFA 2.204
(also listed as R S 358 )
show description

This course will survey Islamic visual culture from its beginnings in the seventh century A.D. up to the sixteenth century.  Our object is to investigate the temporal, spatial, and experiential aspects of Islamic architecture (including forms as varied as mosques, shrines, palaces, schools, and warehouses) - as well as the largely secular and often strongly figural tradition of Islamic painting, sculpture, ceramic, metal and glass objects. In particular, we will pay attention to how buildings and artistic objects were used: in which contexts, and by whom.  We will explore the tension between the rich and diverse regionalism of Islamic art and its simultaneous universal identity.  Has Islam, as one of the world’s great religions, given a special character to its art?  Or is the term “Islamic” perhaps a misnomer to describe an artistic tradition that spans 1,400 years and three continents?  We will also ask how certain external factors - for example accidents of preservation (i.e. more religious monuments survive than secular ones), or the many ways non-Muslims have perceived Islam – produced certain narratives about its artistic culture, both scholarly and popular.By the end of this course, students will be 1) familiar with the major events of Islamic history, 2) able to link these events with specific artistic achievements, and 3) know how to think critically about certain themes or ideas important for understanding Islamic artistic culture.

MES 386 • Islamic Ornament

42248 • Fall 2014
Meets M 1000am-100pm ART 3.432
show description

Islamic art is famous for its tradition of ornamented surfaces, while Western art has often used ornament primarily to highlight or enhance the impact of an image. This course is a comparative study of the role of ornament, which takes as its founding premise that both Islamic and European art emerged from the same Late Antique visual milieu: in which abstract, geometric, and vegetal ornament played a key, (though often neglected) role. The study of ornament has a long and important history in art and design, but with the advent of modernism, ornament was deemed ethically suspect and inimical to art’s higher purposes. Nevertheless, in the past few decades, under the aegis of postmodern theory, ornament has assumed a renewed significance. We will explore multiple scholars’ perspectives on ornament: its practical function and creation, its ability to transform surfaces and thereby change their reception and meaning, and its role as a semiotic device and broader social function as a marker of class, faith, or exoticism.

An important proposal we will explore is the idea that ornament is not mere “decoration,” but rather has a rich functional and symbolic role to play in the human response to and understanding of art. With this role in mind, a key skill students will acquire in this course is the ability to make a visual analysis of a work of art whose primary feature is its ornament. What is the place of abstraction, and when and how is it employed? To what degree may we say ornament is linked to the natural world, especially vegetal ornament? How, in Islamic art, does writing function as ornament? What is phenomenological promise of ornament, its role in the enhancement of diversion and pleasure, and how does ornament fulfill that promise? We will also explore the way in which ornament has a distinctly transient role, how it is often associated with a conception of the “exotic” and as such, tends to move fluidly across boundaries of medium, culture, and society. Examples of this transience range from the reception in Islamic lands of medieval Chinese porcelain, to medieval Europe’s hungry market for elaborately decorated Islamic metalwork and textiles. 

Class Requirements:

Attendance and participation Periodic presentations of readings Presentation of research project to class at end of semester Research paper on topic of your choosing (15-20 pgs.)

Required Texts:

Ernst Gombrich, The Sense of Order: A Study in the Psychology of Decorative Art, (New York, 1979). James Trilling, The Language of Ornament, (New York: Thames and Hudson, 2001).

ISL 373 • Arts Of Islam: 1500-Present

42165 • Spring 2014
Meets TTH 930am-1100am ART 3.432
(also listed as MES 342 )
show description

What do the Taj Mahal in Agra and the Suleymaniye Complex in Istanbul have in common?  This course surveys Islamic visual culture from 1500-1800, looking at the art of the three great “Gunpowder Empires:” the Ottomans in Anatolia and the eastern Mediterranean, the Safavids in modern Iraq and Iran, and the Mughals in the Indian subcontinent. Together, these sometimes-allied/sometimes-warring empires ruled over a third of the earth in their day. Furthermore, as the three great early modern empires of the east, they were actively involved in trade and cultural exchange with Europe and Asia and were influenced by, and influenced, both of these regions’ art and architecture. Taking a thematic view, we will survey architecture, the arts of the book (including manuscript illumination, calligraphy, and painting) and the portable arts (ceramic, metal, textile, stone, and glass objects). We will be concerned with the artistic and cultural interaction and exchange between these empires, but we will also critically interrogate the concept of the “art of Empire.”  Do empires create and use art in different ways than more locally oriented forms of patronage? What is the role of competition between great empires in spurring artistic production?  How did imperial patrons use their status as Muslim rulers to emphasize their right to rule? What was the role of imperial capitals, gardens, and palaces in projecting a sense of imperial splendor? How did these empires interact with Europe, long their trading partner but now, increasingly technologically and culturally, their competitor?  We will look at the art and architecture of mosques, gardens, and palaces, and explore some of the most stunning achievements of Islamic painting, portable, and textile arts. Along the way, we’ll learn the basics of Islamic art and understand what makes this tradition distinctive from other world art traditions.

By the end of this course, students will be 1) familiar with the major events of later Islamic history, 2) able to link these events with specific artistic achievements, and 3) know how to think critically about certain themes or ideas important for understanding Islamic artistic culture.

Prerequisites: Art History and Visual Studies Majors: ARH 302 and 304; for others, ARH 301, 302, or 303 is advisable, but not required.  Previous enrollment in the first half of this survey (Arts of Islam, from Caliphs to Sultans [650-1500]) is strongly encouraged.

MES 342 • Arts Of Islam: 1500-Present

42510 • Spring 2014
Meets TTH 930am-1100am ART 3.432
(also listed as ISL 373 )
show description

What do the Taj Mahal in Agra and the Suleymaniye Complex in Istanbul have in common?  This course surveys Islamic visual culture from 1500-1800, looking at the art of the three great “Gunpowder Empires:” the Ottomans in Anatolia and the eastern Mediterranean, the Safavids in modern Iraq and Iran, and the Mughals in the Indian subcontinent. Together, these sometimes-allied/sometimes-warring empires ruled over a third of the earth in their day. Furthermore, as the three great early modern empires of the east, they were actively involved in trade and cultural exchange with Europe and Asia and were influenced by, and influenced, both of these regions’ art and architecture. Taking a thematic view, we will survey architecture, the arts of the book (including manuscript illumination, calligraphy, and painting) and the portable arts (ceramic, metal, textile, stone, and glass objects). We will be concerned with the artistic and cultural interaction and exchange between these empires, but we will also critically interrogate the concept of the “art of Empire.”  Do empires create and use art in different ways than more locally oriented forms of patronage? What is the role of competition between great empires in spurring artistic production?  How did imperial patrons use their status as Muslim rulers to emphasize their right to rule? What was the role of imperial capitals, gardens, and palaces in projecting a sense of imperial splendor? How did these empires interact with Europe, long their trading partner but now, increasingly technologically and culturally, their competitor?  We will look at the art and architecture of mosques, gardens, and palaces, and explore some of the most stunning achievements of Islamic painting, portable, and textile arts. Along the way, we’ll learn the basics of Islamic art and understand what makes this tradition distinctive from other world art traditions.

By the end of this course, students will be 1) familiar with the major events of later Islamic history, 2) able to link these events with specific artistic achievements, and 3) know how to think critically about certain themes or ideas important for understanding Islamic artistic culture.

Prerequisites: Art History and Visual Studies Majors: ARH 302 and 304; for others, ARH 301, 302, or 303 is advisable, but not required.  Previous enrollment in the first half of this survey (Arts of Islam, from Caliphs to Sultans [650-1500]) is strongly encouraged.

ISL 373 • Arts Of Islam: Caliphs-Sultans

42090 • Fall 2013
Meets MWF 200pm-300pm DFA 2.204
(also listed as MEL 321, MES 342, R S 358 )
show description

This course will survey Islamic visual culture from its beginnings in the seventh century A.D. up to the sixteenth century.  Our object is to investigate the temporal, spatial, and experiential aspects of Islamic architecture (including forms as varied as mosques, shrines, palaces, schools, and warehouses) - as well as the largely secular and often strongly figural tradition of Islamic painting, sculpture, ceramic, metal and glass objects. In particular, we will pay attention to how buildings and artistic objects were used: in which contexts, and by whom.  We will explore the tension between the rich and diverse regionalism of Islamic art and its simultaneous universal identity.  Has Islam, as one of the world’s great religions, given a special character to its art?  Or is the term “Islamic” perhaps a misnomer to describe an artistic tradition that spans 1,400 years and three continents?  We will also ask how certain external factors - for example accidents of preservation (i.e. more religious monuments survive than secular ones), or the many ways non-Muslims have perceived Islam – produced certain narratives about its artistic culture, both scholarly and popular.By the end of this course, students will be 1) familiar with the major events of Islamic history, 2) able to link these events with specific artistic achievements, and 3) know how to think critically about certain themes or ideas important for understanding Islamic artistic culture.

Prerequisites: Art History and Visual Studies Majors: ARH 302 and 304; for others, ARH 301, 302, or 303 is advisable, but not required.

 

Grading:

Attendance & Participation 30%(Includes submission of weekly reading summaries and two pass/fail assignments)Mid-term 20%Research Paper 30%Final Exam 20%

 

Texts:Islamic Art by Barbara Brend(Optional) Islamic Art in Context by Robert Irwin, (not at Co-op but available used online)Online Readings (Ereserves and Archnet)

MEL 321 • Arts Of Islam: Caliphs-Sultans

42175 • Fall 2013
Meets MWF 200pm-300pm DFA 2.204
(also listed as ISL 373, MES 342, R S 358 )
show description

This course will survey Islamic visual culture from its beginnings in the seventh century A.D. up to the sixteenth century.  Our object is to investigate the temporal, spatial, and experiential aspects of Islamic architecture (including forms as varied as mosques, shrines, palaces, schools, and warehouses) - as well as the largely secular and often strongly figural tradition of Islamic painting, sculpture, ceramic, metal and glass objects. In particular, we will pay attention to how buildings and artistic objects were used: in which contexts, and by whom.  We will explore the tension between the rich and diverse regionalism of Islamic art and its simultaneous universal identity.  Has Islam, as one of the world’s great religions, given a special character to its art?  Or is the term “Islamic” perhaps a misnomer to describe an artistic tradition that spans 1,400 years and three continents?  We will also ask how certain external factors - for example accidents of preservation (i.e. more religious monuments survive than secular ones), or the many ways non-Muslims have perceived Islam – produced certain narratives about its artistic culture, both scholarly and popular.By the end of this course, students will be 1) familiar with the major events of Islamic history, 2) able to link these events with specific artistic achievements, and 3) know how to think critically about certain themes or ideas important for understanding Islamic artistic culture.

Prerequisites: Art History and Visual Studies Majors: ARH 302 and 304; for others, ARH 301, 302, or 303 is advisable, but not required.

 

Grading:

Attendance & Participation 30%(Includes submission of weekly reading summaries and two pass/fail assignments)Mid-term 20%Research Paper 30%Final Exam 20%

 

Texts:Islamic Art by Barbara Brend(Optional) Islamic Art in Context by Robert Irwin, (not at Co-op but available used online)Online Readings (Ereserves and Archnet)

MES 342 • Arts Of Islam: Caliphs-Sultans

42350 • Fall 2013
Meets MWF 200pm-300pm DFA 2.204
(also listed as ISL 373, MEL 321, R S 358 )
show description

This course will survey Islamic visual culture from its beginnings in the seventh century A.D. up to the sixteenth century.  Our object is to investigate the temporal, spatial, and experiential aspects of Islamic architecture (including forms as varied as mosques, shrines, palaces, schools, and warehouses) - as well as the largely secular and often strongly figural tradition of Islamic painting, sculpture, ceramic, metal and glass objects. In particular, we will pay attention to how buildings and artistic objects were used: in which contexts, and by whom.  We will explore the tension between the rich and diverse regionalism of Islamic art and its simultaneous universal identity.  Has Islam, as one of the world’s great religions, given a special character to its art?  Or is the term “Islamic” perhaps a misnomer to describe an artistic tradition that spans 1,400 years and three continents?  We will also ask how certain external factors - for example accidents of preservation (i.e. more religious monuments survive than secular ones), or the many ways non-Muslims have perceived Islam – produced certain narratives about its artistic culture, both scholarly and popular.By the end of this course, students will be 1) familiar with the major events of Islamic history, 2) able to link these events with specific artistic achievements, and 3) know how to think critically about certain themes or ideas important for understanding Islamic artistic culture.

Prerequisites: Art History and Visual Studies Majors: ARH 302 and 304; for others, ARH 301, 302, or 303 is advisable, but not required.

 

Grading:

Attendance & Participation 30%(Includes submission of weekly reading summaries and two pass/fail assignments)Mid-term 20%Research Paper 30%Final Exam 20%

 

Texts:Islamic Art by Barbara Brend(Optional) Islamic Art in Context by Robert Irwin, (not at Co-op but available used online)Online Readings (Ereserves and Archnet)

MES 386 • The Islamic City

42445 • Fall 2013
Meets M 1000am-100pm ART 3.433
(also listed as R S 390T )
show description

Islam, it has been said, is primarily an urban civilization.  Simultaneously a religion and a way of life, Islam was originally founded in a city, and the rich history of its social and intellectual institutions is virtually unthinkable outside the context of the urban environment. Indeed, perhaps no religion has ever been more closely associated with the city (Arabic, al-madina), both literally, and as a mental and spiritual landscape.  But what is the Islamic city? Is such a term useful when considering a religion that in medieval times spanned three continents, countless urban centers, and had gathered under its aegis people of multiple faiths, ethnicities, and races to form the rich multicultural stew of premodern Islamic civilization?  Furthermore, despite the urban nature of Islamic society, few of the earliest Islamic cities were founded ex nihilo.  To what degree did pre-existing Greek, Roman, and Sasanian city fabrics affect the Islamic cities that grew up in their midst?  Did medieval Islam’s complex and sophisticated social and legal institutions influence the development of an ‘archetypal’ Islamic city?  If so, how did medieval interlocuters view the ‘ideal’ Islamic city?  And in what way was that ideal similar to/different from contemporary European iterations of the medieval city?In this seminar we will explore the morphology and sociology of cities in Islamic history, using primary texts and architectural/archaeological data to identify and analyze the factors shaping civic forms and structures.  We will examine a variety of individual cities, from fiat cities planned by Caliphal decree to those that developed on top of some of the world’s oldest continuously inhabited urban centers.  We will probe how medieval Muslims themselves conceptualized, understood, and represented their cites, both textually and visually.  At the same time, we will critically examine the idea of the “Islamic City” as it evolved in the West, from the earliest observations of nineteenth-century Orientalist scholars and Muslim reformers to contemporary academic formulations.  From the Medina of the Prophet to the early modern madina, we will ask how and why the framework of the Islamic City might still be relevant, over 1400 years after the advent of this world-encompassing faith.

ISL 373 • Arts Of Islam: 1500-Present

41697 • Spring 2013
Meets TTH 200pm-330pm DFA 2.204
(also listed as MEL 321, MES 342 )
show description

What do the Taj Mahal in Agra and the Suleymaniye Complex in Istanbul have in common?  This course surveys Islamic visual culture from 1500-1800, looking at the art of the three great “Gunpowder Empires:” the Ottomans in Anatolia and the eastern Mediterranean, the Safavids in modern Iraq and Iran, and the Mughals in the Indian subcontinent. Together, these sometimes-allied/sometimes-warring empires ruled over a third of the earth in their day. Furthermore, as the three great early modern empires of the east, they were actively involved in trade and cultural exchange with Europe and Asia and were influenced by, and influenced, both of these regions’ art and architecture. Taking a thematic view, we will survey architecture, the arts of the book (including manuscript illumination, calligraphy, and painting) and the portable arts (ceramic, metal, textile, stone, and glass objects). We will be concerned with the artistic and cultural interaction and exchange between these empires, but we will also critically interrogate the concept of the “art of Empire.”  Do empires create and use art in different ways than more locally oriented forms of patronage? What is the role of competition between great empires in spurring artistic production?  How did imperial patrons use their status as Muslim rulers to emphasize their right to rule? What was the role of imperial capitals, gardens, and palaces in projecting a sense of imperial splendor? How did these empires interact with Europe, long their trading partner but now, increasingly technologically and culturally, their competitor?  We will look at the art and architecture of mosques, gardens, and palaces, and explore some of the most stunning achievements of Islamic painting, portable, and textile arts. Along the way, we’ll learn the basics of Islamic art and understand what makes this tradition distinctive from other world art traditions.

By the end of this course, students will be 1) familiar with the major events of later Islamic history, 2) able to link these events with specific artistic achievements, and 3) know how to think critically about certain themes or ideas important for understanding Islamic artistic culture.

Prerequisites: Art History and Visual Studies Majors: ARH 302 and 304; for others, ARH 301, 302, or 303 is advisable, but not required.  Previous enrollment in the first half of this survey (Arts of Islam, from Caliphs to Sultans [650-1500]) is strongly encouraged.

MEL 321 • Arts Of Islam: 1500-Present

41767 • Spring 2013
Meets TTH 200pm-330pm DFA 2.204
(also listed as ISL 373, MES 342 )
show description

What do the Taj Mahal in Agra and the Suleymaniye Complex in Istanbul have in common?  This course surveys Islamic visual culture from 1500-1800, looking at the art of the three great “Gunpowder Empires:” the Ottomans in Anatolia and the eastern Mediterranean, the Safavids in modern Iraq and Iran, and the Mughals in the Indian subcontinent. Together, these sometimes-allied/sometimes-warring empires ruled over a third of the earth in their day. Furthermore, as the three great early modern empires of the east, they were actively involved in trade and cultural exchange with Europe and Asia and were influenced by, and influenced, both of these regions’ art and architecture. Taking a thematic view, we will survey architecture, the arts of the book (including manuscript illumination, calligraphy, and painting) and the portable arts (ceramic, metal, textile, stone, and glass objects). We will be concerned with the artistic and cultural interaction and exchange between these empires, but we will also critically interrogate the concept of the “art of Empire.”  Do empires create and use art in different ways than more locally oriented forms of patronage? What is the role of competition between great empires in spurring artistic production?  How did imperial patrons use their status as Muslim rulers to emphasize their right to rule? What was the role of imperial capitals, gardens, and palaces in projecting a sense of imperial splendor? How did these empires interact with Europe, long their trading partner but now, increasingly technologically and culturally, their competitor?  We will look at the art and architecture of mosques, gardens, and palaces, and explore some of the most stunning achievements of Islamic painting, portable, and textile arts. Along the way, we’ll learn the basics of Islamic art and understand what makes this tradition distinctive from other world art traditions.

By the end of this course, students will be 1) familiar with the major events of later Islamic history, 2) able to link these events with specific artistic achievements, and 3) know how to think critically about certain themes or ideas important for understanding Islamic artistic culture.

Prerequisites: Art History and Visual Studies Majors: ARH 302 and 304; for others, ARH 301, 302, or 303 is advisable, but not required.  Previous enrollment in the first half of this survey (Arts of Islam, from Caliphs to Sultans [650-1500]) is strongly encouraged.

MES 342 • Arts Of Islam: 1500-Present

41892 • Spring 2013
Meets TTH 200pm-330pm DFA 2.204
(also listed as ISL 373, MEL 321 )
show description

What do the Taj Mahal in Agra and the Suleymaniye Complex in Istanbul have in common?  This course surveys Islamic visual culture from 1500-1800, looking at the art of the three great “Gunpowder Empires:” the Ottomans in Anatolia and the eastern Mediterranean, the Safavids in modern Iraq and Iran, and the Mughals in the Indian subcontinent. Together, these sometimes-allied/sometimes-warring empires ruled over a third of the earth in their day. Furthermore, as the three great early modern empires of the east, they were actively involved in trade and cultural exchange with Europe and Asia and were influenced by, and influenced, both of these regions’ art and architecture. Taking a thematic view, we will survey architecture, the arts of the book (including manuscript illumination, calligraphy, and painting) and the portable arts (ceramic, metal, textile, stone, and glass objects). We will be concerned with the artistic and cultural interaction and exchange between these empires, but we will also critically interrogate the concept of the “art of Empire.”  Do empires create and use art in different ways than more locally oriented forms of patronage? What is the role of competition between great empires in spurring artistic production?  How did imperial patrons use their status as Muslim rulers to emphasize their right to rule? What was the role of imperial capitals, gardens, and palaces in projecting a sense of imperial splendor? How did these empires interact with Europe, long their trading partner but now, increasingly technologically and culturally, their competitor?  We will look at the art and architecture of mosques, gardens, and palaces, and explore some of the most stunning achievements of Islamic painting, portable, and textile arts. Along the way, we’ll learn the basics of Islamic art and understand what makes this tradition distinctive from other world art traditions.

By the end of this course, students will be 1) familiar with the major events of later Islamic history, 2) able to link these events with specific artistic achievements, and 3) know how to think critically about certain themes or ideas important for understanding Islamic artistic culture.

Prerequisites: Art History and Visual Studies Majors: ARH 302 and 304; for others, ARH 301, 302, or 303 is advisable, but not required.  Previous enrollment in the first half of this survey (Arts of Islam, from Caliphs to Sultans [650-1500]) is strongly encouraged.

ISL 372 • Arts Of Islam: Caliphs-Sultans

41505 • Fall 2010
Meets MWF 200pm-300pm DFA 2.204
(also listed as MES 328 )
show description

This course will survey Islamic visual culture from its beginnings in the 7th century A.D. up to the 16th century. Our object is to investigate the temporal, spatial, & experiential aspects of Islamic architecture (including forms as varied as mosques, shrines, palaces, schools, & warehouses) - as wellas the largely secular & often strongly figural tradition of Islamic painting, sculpture, ceramic, metal and glass objects. In particular, we will pay attention to how buildings & artistic objects were used: in which contexts, & by whom. We will explore the tension between the rich & diverse r egionalism of Islamic art & its simultaneous universal identity. Has Islam, as one of the world's great religions, given a special character to its art? Or is the term "Islamic" perhaps a misnomer to describe an artistic tradition that spans 1,400 years & three continents? Additional information provided by instructor.

 

Texts:

Islamic Art and Architecture; History of the Islamic World Online Readings (E-reserves: http://reserves.lib.utexas.edu/eres/), or on the ArchNet website (www.archnet.org).

 

Grading:

Attendance and participation  30% 

Mid-term   20% 

Research paper   30% 

Final exam  20%

 

 

MES 328 • Arts Of Islam: Caliphs-Sultans

41674 • Fall 2010
Meets MWF 200pm-300pm DFA 2.204
(also listed as ISL 372 )
show description

This course will survey Islamic visual culture from its beginnings in the 7th century A.D. up to the 16th century. Our object is to investigate the temporal, spatial, & experiential aspects of Islamic architecture (including forms as varied as mosques, shrines, palaces, schools, & warehouses) - as wellas the largely secular & often strongly figural tradition of Islamic painting, sculpture, ceramic, metal and glass objects. In particular, we will pay attention to how buildings & artistic objects were used: in which contexts, & by whom. We will explore the tension between the rich & diverse r egionalism of Islamic art & its simultaneous universal identity. Has Islam, as one of the world's great religions, given a special character to its art? Or is the term "Islamic" perhaps a misnomer to describe an artistic tradition that spans 1,400 years & three continents? Additional information provided by instructor.

 

Texts:

Islamic Art and Architecture; History of the Islamic World Online Readings (E-reserves: http://reserves.lib.utexas.edu/eres/), or on the ArchNet website (www.archnet.org).

 

Grading:

Attendance and participation  30% 

Mid-term   20% 

Research paper   30% 

Final exam  20%

 

 

MES 390 • The Islamic City

41750 • Fall 2010
Meets F 900am-1200pm ART 3.432
(also listed as MDV 392M )
show description

This seminar  will explore the morphology & sociology of cities in Islamic history, using primary texts & architectural/archaeological data to identify & analyze the primary factors shaping civic forms & structures.  We will examine a variety of individual cities, from fiat cities planned by Caliphal decree to those that developed on top of some of the world’s oldest continuously inhabited urban centers.  We will probe how medieval Muslims themselves conceptualized, understood, & represented their cites, both textually & visually.  We will also critically examine the idea of the “Islamic City” as it evolved in the West, from the earliest observations of 19th-century Orientalist scholars & Muslim reformers to contemporary academic formulations.  We will ask how & why the framework of the Islamic City might still be relevant, over 1400 years after the advent of this world-encompassing faith. 

 

Texts:

To be provided by the instructor.

 

Grading: 

To be provided by the instructor.

 

bottom border