Information and Advice for Graduate Students in Philosophy
People often speak of "specialists" in ancient philosophy. But the term can be misleading. Nearly everyone who teaches ancient philosophy in an American university or college is a generalist, whether in Philosophy or in Classics; and nearly everyone teaches several other subjects outside their "field of specialization." Moreover, much of the most important research in ancient philosophy has been done by scholars with a solid background in core areas either of traditional and modern philosophy or of classical studies. And much of the most exciting teaching and research in the field is comparative, exploring relations or interactions between ancient and modern philosophy, or between ancient philosophy and other areas of ancient culture, ranging from poetry and oratory to history and science. It is to your advantage, then, to include a wide range of philosophical topics in your program of graduate study, and generally to avoid taking more than one seminar in ancient philosophy in a semester. During your three years of coursework in particular, you would do well to achieve the following goals:
- Study of general issues or problems: essentialism, personal identity, virtue ethics, etc.
- Study of major figures or works outside ancient philosophy: Aquinas, Hume, Nietzsche, etc.
- Historical studies in early modern philosophy: empiricism and rationalism from Descartes to Kant.
- Study of central problems and methods in 20th-century analytic philosophy.
- Work in the modern counterparts to the three areas distinguished in antiquity:
logic, epistemology, philosophy of science
metaphysics, philosophy of mind, theology
ethics, political theory, aesthetics
- At least one seminar each on Plato and Aristotle.
- Seminars with many different faculty members, including several in the Joint Program Committee.
Most of these points merely reinforce or supplement requirements set by the Department for all students. Some are best satisfied by TA-ing for undergraduate courses rather than taking seminars; for example, TA-ing for Philosophy 329L ("Early Modern Philosophy") is an excellent way to fulfill the third bullet point.
Integrating Philosophy and Classics
Ancient Greek is a top priority. If you have had at least three semesters of Greek, the best sequel is Greek 390, an intensive reading course in Plato that focuses on grammar and translation (offered every Fall). If you have not taken any Greek before, plan to take Intensive Greek in the summer: this course covers the equivalent of about three semesters, and it is a far more efficient introduction than starting Greek during the year, either in Fall (Greek 506-7) or in Spring (accelerated Greek 606). See Courses.
It is usually best for entering students to take only graduate seminars in philosophy during the first semester here. This is not a good time for doing Supporting Work, since it is important to get to know the Philosophy faculty, and vice versa -- not least because this often affects TA assignments. One major exception is Greek 390 (Plato), especially if you have just taken Intensive Greek during the Summer.
Supporting Work in Greek and Classics
Courses counted to fulfill the Foreign Language requirement in Philosophy do not also count toward the Supporting Work requirement. Only courses beyond the fourth-semester level of Greek count toward the latter; if you skip the fourth semester, Greek 390 fulfills only the foreign language requirement.
Some cross-listed courses may be counted as Supporting Work when you advance to doctoral candidacy. But it is usually to your advantage if you minimum nine hours in Supporting Work include coursework outside ancient philosophy. Especially valuable are upper-division or graduate courses on Greek literature or history. See Courses.
Classics offers a one-hour Proseminar (GK/LAT 180K) every Fall for its new graduate students. The course consists of brief introductions to the several fields in classical studies, each delivered by a specialist on the faculty; the first two sessions usually provide orientation to Library resources and computer resources in the Classics Department and elsewhere. Philosophy students are welcome to audit or enroll, and many in the Joint Program have.
Other Foreign Languages
Scholars specializing in ancient philosophy need reading proficiency in the two classical languages, Greek and Latin, and in two or more modern European languages (German, Italian, French, Spanish). At international conferences, some discussion is often in German, French, or Italian, even when English is the principal language. It is therefore best to develop some oral skills, and to enroll in classes that cover all facets of the language (listening, speaking, and writing, as well as reading). Most people find that the other skills greatly enhance their reading fluency; so it is generally less useful to take courses designed exclusively for reading skill.
If learning more than one foreign language seems daunting, keep this in mind: in learning your first foreign language, a major hurdle is simply learning how to learn a foreign language. Learning other languages usually becomes easier the more languages you learn. When the languages are closely related (as most European languages are), learning another can be quite easy. Some non-European languages are also valuable: some ancient philosophical works survive only in Arabic, Hebrew, or Armenian.
Which foreign languages are most important depends on your interests and plans. Latin is most important in some areas, but German or Italian in others. For example, if you plan to focus on Plato, then German is essential; but if you plan to work on Epicureanism, Latin and Italian are more important.
Summers are the best time for learning new languages. Few graduate courses are offered then, and funding is sometimes available for intensive Summer programs.
Teaching and research in any area of ancient philosophy require familiarity with certain core texts and problems. The Reading List, which reflects these needs, comprises major texts from the Presocratics and Plato to Aristotle and Sextus Empiricus. It should be a major focus of your study during your three years of coursework. Some of this work will be covered in seminars and other courses, but much of it you must study independently. The Reading List is also the basis for a translation examination which members of the Joint Program must pass before advancing to candidacy.