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Robert Crosnoe, Chair CLA 3.306, Mailcode A1700, Austin, TX 78712 • 512-232-6300

Catherine E. Ross

Ph.D., Yale University

Professor
Catherine E. Ross

Contact

Biography

Professor Catherine Ross comes to the University of Texas from Ohio State University. The quality of Professor Ross' teaching is probably best summarized by focusing on the awards she has received for teaching. She has been the recipient of 5 teaching awards - 3 for undergraduate teaching, 2 for graduate teaching.

Continuous funding since 1994 by the National Institutes of Health has allowed Professor Ross to fund and train graduate students over this period. The 74 peer-reviewed articles published during her career (46 first-authored) makes her uniquely qualified to coach students in the theoretical, statistical, and mechanical aspects of publishing in professional journals. Professor Ross has published 14 articles with graduate students.

NIH Biosketch

SOC 395J • Sociology Of Mental Health

45780 • Spring 2012
Meets M 1200pm-300pm MAI 1704
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This course examines the social causes of mental health. We ask, what are mental health and mental illness, and how can they be measured? We contrast the social view with the medical, psychiatric, and psychological views. We cover these areas: social epidemiology of mental health; social and psychological factors in mental health; and treatment for psychological problems. In looking at social factors in the unequal distribution of mental health, we focus on the following social systems: education, stratification, and inequality; work; gender; neighborhoods; age and the lifecourse; and the family. Social psychological factors in mental health include perceived control over life, mastery, and fatalism, social support, meaning, self- esteem, coping, trust, inequity, and commitment, and flexibility. We contrast prevention with treatment in the creating and maintaining mental health. We address questions such as these: What role does poverty play in mental health? Why does socioeconomic status affect psychological well-being? Why are men less depressed and anxious than women? How can the stress on working mothers be relieved? At what age is psychological well-being at its optimum? Are prescription drugs a mental health benefit or risk? Are children good for parents' psychological well-being? Does feeling responsible for your failures improve mental health? Do neighborhoods affect residents' levels of trust? Where does a sense of personal control come from?

SOC 395J • Sociology Of Mental Health

45775 • Fall 2010
Meets TH 1200pm-300pm MAI 1704
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This course examines the social causes of mental health. We ask, what are mental health and mental illness, and how can they be measured? We contrast the social view with the medical, psychiatric, and psychological views. We cover these areas: social epidemiology of mental health; social and psychological factors in mental health; and treatment for psychological problems. In looking at social factors in the unequal distribution of mental health, we focus on the following social systems: education, stratification, and inequality; work; gender; neighborhoods; age and the lifecourse; and the family. Social psychological factors in mental health include perceived control over life, mastery, and fatalism, social support, meaning, self- esteem, coping, trust, inequity, and commitment, and flexibility. We contrast prevention with treatment in the creating and maintaining mental health. We address questions such as these: What role does poverty play in mental health? Why does socioeconomic status affect psychological well-being? Why are men less depressed and anxious than women? How can the stress on working mothers be relieved? At what age is psychological well-being at its optimum? Are prescription drugs a mental health benefit or risk? Are children good for parents' psychological well-being? Does feeling responsible for your failures improve mental health? Do neighborhoods affect residents' levels of trust? Where does a sense of personal control come from?

SOC 395J • Mental Hlth In Social Context

46495 • Fall 2009
Meets TTH 330pm-500pm BUR 134
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Sociology of Mental Health
Soc. 395J Fall 2009 (46495)
Professor Catherine Ross cross@prc.utexas.edu
TH. 12 - 3 Office: 533 Burdine Hall
1706 Main
This course examines the social causes of mental health. We ask, what are mental health and
mental illness, and how can they be measured? We contrast the social view with the medical,
psychiatric, and psychological views. We cover these areas: social epidemiology of mental
health; social and psychological factors in mental health; and treatment for psychological
problems. In looking at social factors in the unequal distribution of mental health, we focus on
the following social systems: education, stratification, and inequality; work; gender;
neighborhoods; age and the lifecourse; and the family. Social psychological factors in mental
health include perceived control over life, mastery, and fatalism, social support, meaning, selfesteem,
coping, trust, inequity, and commitment, and flexibility. We contrast prevention with
treatment in the creating and maintaining mental health.
We address questions such as these:
What role does poverty play in mental health?
Why does socioeconomic status affect psychological well-being?
Why are men less depressed and anxious than women?
How can the stress on working mothers be relieved?
At what age is psychological well-being at its optimum?
Are prescription drugs a mental health benefit or risk?
Are children good for parents' psychological well-being?
Does feeling responsible for your failures improve mental health?
Do neighborhoods affect residents’ levels of trust?
Where does a sense of personal control come from?
GRADE: Term paper of approximately 15 pages (65%).
Class presentation of paper (approximately 15-20 minutes) (10%). Class participation (5%)
Preparation and presentation of lecture/discussion (approximately 30-40 minutes) (20%).
REQUIRED READINGS. Social Causes of Psychological Distress , second edition, 2003, by
John Mirowsky and Catherine Ross, Aldine de Gruyter (paperback). Each student will develop
a short reading list of research articles related to their interests for their term paper.
Course Outline, Readings, and Schedule
I. Social Causes of Psychological Distress
Sept. 3
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UNDERSTANDING THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN SOCIAL AND PERSONAL PROBLEMS . . . . .
Distress as a Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gradations in Distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ordinary People in the Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PREVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II. Researching the Causes of Distress
Chapter 2. MEASURING PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND DISTRESS . . . . . . . . . . .
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depression and Anxiety; Mood and Malaise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Opposite of Well-Being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not Dissatisfaction or Alienation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Not Mental Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A Human Universal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIAGNOSIS: SUPERIMPOSED DISTINCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Psychological Problems are Real, but Not Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The linguistic legacy of infectious-disease epidemiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reification of categories in psychiatry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The alternative: the type and severity of symptoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reliability versus certainty: the fallacy of the two-category scale . . . . . . .
A person does not have to be diagnosed to be helped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How a Diagnosis is Made . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagnosing schizophrenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A Sea of Troubles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The patterns of symptoms: galaxies, nebula, or spectra? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mapping the 4,095 correlations among 91 symptoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A circular spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Multiplication of Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONCLUSION: THE STORY OF A WOMAN DIAGNOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDIX OF SYMPTOM INDEXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schizophrenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paranoia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depressed Mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manic Mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depressed Malaise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manic Malaise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anxious Mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Panic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anxious Malaise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alcoholism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sept. 10
Chapter 3. REAL-WORLD CAUSES OF REAL-WORLD MISERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ESTABLISHING CAUSE IN THE HUMAN SCIENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finding Causes: The Three Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Population studies of distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Non-spuriousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Causal order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Things that don't change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Common sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relative stickiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Common knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Longitudinal data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patterns and their explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Experimental Studies of Distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The theory behind randomized experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Practical limitations of experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inherent limitations of experiments on causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inherent limitations of experiments on treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Philosophical limitations of experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXPLAINING REAL PATTERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
III. Social Patterns of Distress
Sept. 17 - 24
Chapter 4. BASIC PATTERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education is Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment Status and Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Economic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sense of Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MARRIAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Social Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supportive Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Economic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHILDREN AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Economic Hardships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strained Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Life Course Discords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wife and Mother as Stressful Statuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stressfulness of the traditional female status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lagged adaptation to women’s employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conflict between work and family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expressiveness and Response Bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gendered Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anger does not displace depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troublesome behavior does not displace distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UNDESIRABLE LIFE EVENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Five Views of Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age as maturity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age as decline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age as life-cycle stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age as generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age as survival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conditions, Beliefs, Emotions and Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Economic well-being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Childhood family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health and physical functioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sense of control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oct. 1 - 8
Chapter 5. NEW PATTERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIFE COURSE DISRUPTIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parental Divorce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enduring consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Impaired status attainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primed interpersonal difficulties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unfolding problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age at First Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consequences of early parenthood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fathers included . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delay makes parenthood beneficial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Risks of long delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pivotal and optimal ages at first birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parenthood better for fathers than for mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The trend toward later parenthood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age and the Gender Gap in Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age-related differences in adult statuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depression by age for women and men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hormones, sex roles, and gendered response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Life course increases or historical decreases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NEIGHBORHOOD DISADVANTAGE AND DISORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Concentrated Disadvantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Breakdown of social order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Neighborhood Disadvantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring neighborhood aggregations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring neighborhood disadvantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
More than just individual disadvantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying individual disadvantage? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Neighborhood Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resident observations of neighborhood disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disorder and distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disorder linking neighborhood disadvantage to distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Affinity or vulnerability? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Urban Concentrations, Disadvantage, Disorder, and Distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV. Explaining the Patterns
Oct. 15 - 22
Chapter 6. LIFE CHANGE: AN ABANDONED EXPLANATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONCEPTUAL HISTORY OF LIFE CHANGE AND STRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The General Adaptation Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
From Rat Pathology to Human Distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noxious stimuli to significant events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Biological homeostasis to social readjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Somatic disease to emotional distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTRADICTORY EVIDENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undesirability Rather than Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outcome Rather than Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VARIANTS OF THE LIFE CHANGE INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indexing Daily Hassles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indexing Chronic Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indexing Lifetime Trauma and Cumulative Adversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTS AND FUTURE RESEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 7. ALIENATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Faces and Names of Powerlessness and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locus of control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-efficacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Learned helplessness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Perceived Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal rather than universal, global rather than specific . . . . . . . . . . . .
Averaging out cross-cutting factors: the 2x2 structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agreement tendency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-defense and self-blame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Belief Shaped by Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Perceptions, not just conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shaped by reality, not just imagined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Objective Power and Perceived Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Theoretical conditions undermining the sense of control . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sociodemographic Correlates of Control and Powerlessness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Socioeconomic status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Employment, jobs and work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Race and ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age and cohort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gender, work and family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paid and unpaid work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work and family interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gender, marriage and children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gender and age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Powerlessness and Distress: Demoralization versus Instrumental Coping . . . . . .
Morale and effective action: the theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low sense of control, high distress: the observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low sense of control linking disadvantaged status to distress . . . . . . . . . .
Contingent and Moderating Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control over good and bad outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal and universal control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Powerful others, chance, and God . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moderating the effects of problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support and control: mutually limiting resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The trade-off between optimism and realism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diminishing returns and the optimum sense of control . . . . . . . . . .
Status and the optimum sense of control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support and the optimum sense of control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Perceived Control as Link Between Conditions and Emotions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMMITMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-Estrangement and Alienated Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Voluntary Participation in Community Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Social Embeddedness: Benefits and Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Links Between Social Integration and Social Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emotional Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NORMALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normlessness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Role Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALIENATION: THE PRIME STRESSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oct. 29
Chapter 8. AUTHORITARIANISM AND INEQUITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUTHORITARIANISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inflexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mistrust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reliance, collective efficacy, and social capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zero-sum views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A distressing alienation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disorder, powerlessness and mistrust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structural amplification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disadvantage and mistrust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Concentrating distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INEQUITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Victims and Exploiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marriage: cynical and optimistic views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Income: just reward or just enough? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Powerlessness and unfair treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V. Conclusion: Prevention vs. Treatment
Chapter 9. WHY SOME PEOPLE ARE MORE DISTRESSED THAN OTHERS . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTROL OF ONE'S OWN LIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control and the Patterns of Distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control and Other Explanations of Distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Proportion of Symptoms Attributable to Social Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Social Factors and Severe Psychological Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENETICS AND BIOCHEMISTRY AS ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Genetic Predispositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Biochemical Anomalies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structural Anomalies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No Biological Test Yet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Down-regulating Iatrogenic Helplessness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WHAT CAN BE DONE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Education: the Headwaters of Well-being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A Good Job: Adequate Income, a Measure of Autonomy, Accommodation to
Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A Supportive Relationship: Fair and Caring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
"TAKE ARMS AGAINST A SEA OF TROUBLES" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nov. 5 Student presentations and lectures
Nov. 12 Student presentations and lectures
Nov. 19 Student presentations and lectures
Dec. 3 Paper due
Student presentations and lectures

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