LAS 381 • NONGOV ORGS IN DEVEL WORLDS
9:00 AM-12:00 PM
In recent decades Non-Governmental and Non-Profit organizations (NGOs or NPOs) have proliferated in all nations of the world. This new organizational form reflects local and international initiatives related to human rights, the environment, sustainable development, health, education and much more. Several attempts have been made to categorize and understand the function of these new and varied organizational forms that exist in the contested and ill-defined economic, political, and social area that lies between the Market and the State and that is often referred to as Civil Society.
Today NGOs, many of which originated as organizations opposed to State excesses or failures, and many of which are faith-based, have assumed significant roles in providing social services to a wide range of people, as well as advocating for basic social and political rights. Since the 1980s international competition, low economic growth rates, and elevated citizen expectations have placed serious strains on the State's ability to provide retirement, health, educational, and other social services to populations, and especially to the poor and indigenous groups. At the same time migration, growing female labor force participation, and changing family forms have reduced the local community's ability to cope with the needs of its members. In this new and rapidly changing environment NGOs have become increasingly important organizations though which States sponsor basic social objectives. In addition to the sectors in which they operate, NGOs vary tremendously in size, financing, administration, staffing, and more. They range from informal small-scale local grassroots community initiatives to international and multi-lateral organizations with large budgets and professionalized staffs. Many of the largest are quasi-governmental in the scale of their operations. This course begins with a review of attempts to define and asses the boundaries of NGO activity and moves to an examination of the role of NGOs in providing social services. We will examine the history of NGOs, their structure and financing, and the nature of the problems these organizational forms are best suited to address. We will examine the consequences of professionalization on organizational structure, performance, and the evaluation of outcomes. The course also examines the potential role of NGOs in fostering community participation in the solution of social problems and their role in the development of a sense of citizenship. Although the focus of the course will be on Latin America course participants are free to examine the phenomenon in their own area of interest including the United States.
The course consists of readings with group discussion and presentations related to specific areas of NGO activity. Given the large size of the class we will break up into groups, each of which will assume responsibility for leading the discussion related to a specific topic. The group will begin with the recommended readings and drop and add readings as they decide. The course grade will be based on a final paper of approximately 25 pages that deals with a topic of the student's choice. Required and recommended readings are listed on blackboard and the list is a still a work in progress. Individual participants will read literature relevant to their own research topic. The four books that we will all read as a beginning to our discussions and that should be available at the co-op include: Ahmed, Shamima and David M. Potter. NGOs in International Politics. Worcester, MA: Kumarin Press. Batliwala, Srilatha and L. David Brown (Editors). 2006. Transnational Civil Society: An Introduction. Worcester, MA: Kumarian Press, Inc. Hilhorst, Dorothea. 2003. The Real World of NGOs: Discourse, Diversity, and Development. New York: Zen Books. Howell, Jude and Jenny Pearce. 2001. Civil Society and Development. A Critical Exploration. Bolder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publisher. Books of interest (not required): Keck, Margaret and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press Edwards, Michael, and David Hume. 1996 Beyond the Magic Bullet: NGO Performance and Accountability in the Post Cold War World. Worcester, MA: Kumarin Press. Hudock, Ann C. 1999.NGOs and Civil Society: Democracy by Proxy? Malden, MA: Polity Press. Mendelson, Sarah and John Glenn (eds). 2002. The Power and Limits of NGOs. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Meyers, Carrie.1999 The Economics and Politics of NGOs in Latin America. Westport, CN: Praeger. Boli, John and George M. Thomas (eds). Constructing World Culture: International Nongovernmental Organizations Since 1875. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Dejong, Jocelyn. 2003. Making an Impact on HIV/AIDS: The NGO Experience of Ramping Up. ITDG Publishing, Bourton Hall, Bourton-on-Dunsmore, Rugby, Warwickshire, CV23 9QZ, UK. Edwards, Michael. 2004. Civil Society. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Distributed in the U.S. by Blackwell. Ott, J. Steven. 2001. Understanding Non Profits: Governance, Leadership, and Management. Jackson, TN: Westview Press. -------------------------------