Deborah A. Bolnick
Faculty Research Associate — Ph.D., University of California, Davis
Associate Professor of Anthropology
Articles in Peer-Reviewed Journals
Raff JA, Bolnick DA. In press. Does mitochondrial haplogroup X indicate ancient trans-Atlantic migration to the Americas? A critical re-evaluation. Paleoamerica.
Smith RWA, Monroe C, Bolnick DA. 2015. Detection of cytosine methylation in ancient DNA from five Native American populations using bisulfite sequencing. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0125344.
Reynolds AW, Raff JA, Bolnick DA, Cook DC, Kaestle FA. 2015. Ancient DNA from the Schild site in Illinois: implications for the Mississippian transition in the Lower Illinois river valley. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 156:434-448.
Tofanelli S, Brisighelli F, Anagnostou P, Busby G, Ferri G, Thomas M, Taglioli L, Rudan I, Zemunik T, Hayward C, Bolnick DA, Romano V, Cali F, Luiselli D, Shepherd GB, Tusa S, Facella A. 2015. The Greeks in the West: genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonization in southern Italy and Sicily. European Journal of Human Genetics. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015. 124
Kemp BM, Lindo J, Bolnick DA, Malhi RS, Chatters JC. 2015. Response to Prüfer and Meyer comment on “Late Pleistocene human skeleton and mtDNA link Paleoamericans and modern Native Americans”. Science 347:835.
Fujimura JH, Bolnick DA, Rajagopalan R, Kaufman J, Lewontin RC, Duster T, Ossorio P, Marks J. 2014. Clines without classes: how to make sense of human variation. Sociological Theory 32:208-227.
Chatters JC, Kennett DJ, Stafford TW, Asmerom Y, Kemp BM, Polyak V, Blank AN, Beddows P, Reinhart E, Arroyo-Cabrales J, Bolnick DA, Malhi RS, Erreguerena PL, Morell-Hart S, Rissollo D. 2014. Late Pleistocene human skeleton and mtDNA links Paleoamericans and modern Native Americans. Science 344:750-754.
Kennett DJ, Asmerom Y, Kemp BM, Polyak V, Bolnick DA, Malhi RS, Culleton BJ. 2014. Early Americans: misstated results. Science 345:390.
Veilleux CC, Jacobs RL, Cummings ME, Louis EE, Bolnick DA. 2014. Opsin genes and visual ecology in a secondarily nocturnal primate. International Journal of Primatology 35:88-107.
Raff JA, Bolnick DA. 2014. Genetic roots of the first Americans. Nature 506:162-163.
Villanea FA, Bolnick DA, Monroe C, Worl R, Cambra R, Leventhal A, Kemp BM. 2013. Evolution of a specific O allele (O1vG542A) supports unique ancestry of Native Americans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 151:649-657.
Veilleux CC, Louis EE, Bolnick DA. 2013. Nocturnal light environments influence color vision and signatures of selection on the OPN1SW opsin gene in nocturnal lemurs. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30:1420-1437.
Mata-Míguez J, Overholtzer L, Rodríguez-Alegría ER, Kemp BM, and Bolnick DA. 2012. The genetic impact of Aztec imperialism: ancient mitochondrial DNA evidence from Xaltocan, Mexico. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149:504-516.
Bolnick DA, Bonine HM, Mata-Miguez J, Kemp BM, Snow MH, LeBlanc SA. 2012. Non-destructive sampling of human skeletal remains yields ancient nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147:293-300.
Raff JA*, Bolnick DA*, Tackney J, O’Rourke DH. 2011. Ancient DNA perspectives on American colonization and population history. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 146:503-514.
* equal contribution; one of five most accessed articles in AJPA in 2011
Lee SS, Bolnick DA, Duster T, Ossorio P, TallBear K. 2009. The illusive gold standard in genetic ancestry testing. Science 325:38-39.
Veilleux CC, Bolnick DA. 2009. Opsin gene polymorphism predicts trichromacy in a cathemeral lemur. American Journal of Primatology71:86-90.
Bolnick DA. 2009. Comment on “Color, race, and genomic ancestry in Brazil: dialogues between anthropology and genetics” by Ricardo Santos et al. Current Anthropology 50:802-803.
Halverson MS, Bolnick DA. 2008. An ancient DNA test of a founder effect in Native American ABO blood group frequencies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137:342-347.
Bolnick DA, Fullwiley D, Marks J, Reverby SM, Kahn J, TallBear K, Reardon J, Cooper RS, Duster T, Fujimura JH, Kaufman JS, Morning A, Nelson A, Ossorio P. 2008. Response to “The legitimacy of genetic ancestry tests” by Tony Frudakis. Science 319:1039-1040.
[Reprinted in: Park ME, editor. 2009. Biological Anthropology: An Introductory Reader, 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.]
Bolnick DA, Fullwiley D, Duster T, Cooper RS, Fujimura JH, Kahn J, Kaufman JS, Marks J, Morning A, Nelson A, Ossorio P, Reardon J, Reverby SM, TallBear K. 2007. The science and business of genetic ancestry testing. Science 318:399-400.
[Reprinted in: Park ME, editor. 2009. Biological Anthropology: An Introductory Reader, 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.]
Bolnick DA, Smith DG. 2007. Migration and social structure among the Hopewell: evidence from ancient DNA. American Antiquity 72:627-644.
Kemp BM, Malhi RS, McDonough J, Bolnick DA, Eshleman JA, Rickards O, Martinez-Labarga C, Johnson JR, Lorenz JG, Dixon EJ, Fifield TE, Heaton TH, Worl R, Smith DG. 2007. Genetic analysis of early Holocene skeletal remains from Alaska and implications for the peopling of the Americas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 132:605-621.
Bolnick DA, Bolnick DI, Smith DG. 2006. Asymmetric male and female genetic histories among Native Americans from eastern North America. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23:2161-2174.
Bolnick DA, Shook BAS, Campbell L, Goddard I. 2004. Problematic use of Greenberg’s linguistic classification of the Americas in studies of Native American genetic variation. American Journal of Human Genetics 75:519-522.
Bolnick DA, Smith DG. 2003. Unexpected patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation among Native Americans from the southeastern United States. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 122:336-354.
Weale ME*, Weiss DA*, Jager RF, Bradman N, Thomas MG. 2002. Y chromosome evidence for Anglo-Saxon mass migration. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19:1008-1021. * indicates equal contribution
Malhi RS, Eshleman JA, Greenberg JA, Weiss DA, Schultz BA, Kemp BM, Kaestle FA, Lorenz JG, Johnson JR, Smith DG. 2002. The structure of diversity within New World mitochondrial DNA haplogroups: implications for the prehistory of North America. American Journal of Human Genetics 70:905-919.
Wilson JF, Weiss DA, Richards M, Thomas MG, Bradman N, Goldstein DB. 2001. Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences USA 98:5078-5083.
Nebel A, Filon D, Weiss DA, Weale M, Faerman M, Oppenheim A, Thomas MG. 2000. High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews. Human Genetics 107:630-641.
Thomas MG, Parfitt T, Weiss DA, Skorecki K, Wilson JF, Roux M, Bradman N, Goldstein DB. 2000. Y chromosomes traveling south: the Cohen modal haplotype and the origins of the Lemba – the “black Jews of Southern Africa.” American Journal of Human Genetics 66:674-686.
Chapters in Peer-Reviewed Edited Volumes
Feder KL, Barnhart TA, Bolnick DA, Lepper BT. In press. Lessons learned from Lost Civilizations. In: Card JJ, Anderson DS, editors. Lost City, Found Pyramid: Understanding Alternative Archaeologies and Pseudoscientific Practices. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Bolnick DA. 2011. Continuity and change in anthropological perspectives on migration: insights from molecular anthropology. In: Cabana GS, Clark JJ, editors. Rethinking Anthropological Perspectives on Migration. pp 263-277.
Bolnick DA. 2008. Individual ancestry inference and the reification of race as a biological phenomenon. In: Koenig B, Lee S, Richardson S, editors. Revisiting Race in a Genomic Age. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. pp 70-88.
[Reprinted in: Machery E, Downes S, editors. 2013. Arguing about Human Nature. New York: Routledge. pp 386-396.]
Popular Articles (Not Peer-Reviewed)
Bolnick DA, Feder KL, Lepper BT, Barnhart TA. 2012. Civilizations lost and found: fabricating history. Part 3: real messages in DNA. Skeptical Inquirer 36:48-51.
Lepper BT, Feder KL, Barnhart TA, Bolnick DA. 2011. Civilizations lost and found: fabricating history. Part 2: false messages in stone. Skeptical Inquirer 35:48-54.
Feder KL, Lepper BT, Barnhart TA, Bolnick DA. 2011. Civilizations lost and found: fabricating history. Part 1: an alternate reality. Skeptical Inquirer 35:38-45.
Bolnick DA. 2009. Ancient DNA from Hopewell sites in Ohio and Illinois. Hopewell Happenings: 7. (Annual Newsletter of the Hopewell Culture National Historic Park)
TallBear K, Bolnick DA. 2004. “Native American DNA” tests: what are the risks for tribes? The Native Voice, December 3-17.
[Reprinted in: Darnovsky M and Obasogie O, editors. In press (2016). Beyond Bioethics: Toward a New Biopolitics. Berkeley: University of California Press.]
Bolnick DA, Miró-Herrans AT, Raff JA, Reynolds AW, Springs LC. Under contract . Native American genomics and population histories. Annual Review of Anthropology. (Invited submission)
Relethford JH, Bolnick DA. Under contract. Reflections of the Past: How Human History is Revealed in Our Genes. Second edition. Westview Press.
Research in the Bolnick Genomic Anthropology Lab bridges anthropology and genetics, and falls into four categories:
- Studies of Genomic Diversity and Population History in the Americas
- Paleoepigenetic Research
- Research on Genetic Ancestry, Race, and ELSI Issues
- Additional Research Projects
See below for more information about each area of research.
Studies of Genomic Diversity and Population History in the Americas
Patterns of human genetic variation can yield important insights into the evolutionary history and current population structure of our species. In our research, we examine patterns of variation across the entire genome as well as in targeted genomic regions, such as the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA, paternally-inherited Y chromosome, and specific autosomal loci (ex. ABO blood group and immune genes). In collaboration with biologists, anthropologists from a variety of subdisciplines, and members of indigenous communities, we look for genetic signatures of the evolutionary, demographic, and cultural factors that have shaped human biodiversity and population history in the Americas.
Current Research Projects:
– characterizing genome-wide diversity patterns in ancient and/or contemporary populations from the Alaskan North Slope, the Midwestern and Southern United States, central Mexico, coastal Belize, and northwestern Argentina
– reconstructing region-specific population histories and changes in the Native American gene pool over time
– testing archaeological and ethnohistorical hypotheses about migration, population replacement, and other demographic changes in ancient times
(ex. did the expansion and collapse of the Toltec, Tepanec, and Aztec states in central Mexico have a demographic and genetic impact on local populations?)
– evaluating whether sociocultural and evolutionary changes over the last millenium altered the genetic structure of Native American populations
– assessing the impact of European contact and colonial practices on genomic diversity in the Americas
(e.g., how did post-contact selection, migration (admixture), and genetic drift affect genetic variation across the genome, including at immune genes and HLA loci?)
– analyzing ancient DNA from early (pre-8000 BP) human inhabitants of North and South America to investigate the initial peopling of the Americas
- reconstructing kinship relationships among individuals from the same burial population
In addition to analyzing variation in the DNA itself, we also look at chemical modifications to DNA (cytosine methylation) that influence when genes are expressed. Studies of contemporary populations have shown that certain life experiences influence epigenetic patterns, so analysis of these patterns in ancient DNA (paleoepigenetics) may help us reconstruct individual experiences in ancient human societies. We are currently working to (a) reconstruct genome-wide epigenetic patterns in a pre-Hispanic population from the central Peruvian Andes, (b) assess the DNA-level effects of trauma, violence, and famine experienced by some members of this society, and (c) evaluate how social inequalities mediated the epigenetic consequences of traumatic experiences in the ancient world. This project has the potential to provide important new insights into the lives of individuals in ancient times.
Research on Genetic Ancestry, Race, and ELSI Issues
Genetic ancestry inference has emerged as an important area of study over the last 15 years, and it has given rise to a profitable commercial industry. We have investigated how genetic ancestry testing influences and is influenced by American understandings of race, ethnicity, and identity, both in scientific studies and in commercial tests marketed to the public. We also evaluate what these studies/tests convey about human biodiversity, race, and the evolutionary history of our species. More generally, we are also interested in the ethical, legal, social, and political implications of genetic research.
Additional Research Projects
We contribute to a variety of additional research projects, partly through our collaborations with others who want to incorporate genetic or ancient DNA analyses into their research. For example, we have used ancient DNA analyses to investigate the dietary content of human paleofeces (coprolites) from the U.S. Southwest. In another project, we have investigated the evolution of color vision and the pattern of opsin (visual pigment) gene variation in nocturnal lemurs.
Ancient DNA Lab
Location: PAT 417
Phone Number: 512.232.4139
Modern DNA/Post-PCR Lab
Location: SAC 5.168
Phone Number: 512.471.2781
Former Lab Members
Dr. Jennifer Raff, Postdoctoral Researcher (2013-2015); now Assistant
Professor of Anthropology at the University of Kansas
Melissa Halverson, Graduate Student (M.A. 2006)
Olivia Starich, Undergraduate
Robert Vandevere, Undergraduate
Krystin Samms, Undergraduate
Kelly Manrriquez, Undergraduate
Mareike Janiak, Undergraduate
Kelly Chapman, Undergraduate
Maeve Cavanaugh, Undergraduate
Jenna Strawbridge, Undergraduate
Blake Kincaid, Undergraduate
Brianne Herrera, Undergraduate
Julie Perez, Undergraduate