T C PHL610 • Problems of Knowledge and Valuation
|41850 to 41865||Multiple Sections||
Second semester: Descartes and Hume; knowledge and mind. The aim of this semester is to introduce topics in epistemology and metaphysics, initially through the works of two major philosophers, René Descartes (f. 1670) and David Hume (f. 1750). They will serve to introduce two main themes: the nature of knowledge and skepticism; and the nature of the human mind and action. Descartes is known for two highly influential ideas. His skepticism arises from his reflection that we might be deceived by an "evil demon" who makes it seem as if our ordinary world exists whereas in reality there is nothing. Although Descartes hoped to defuse skepticism, it has lived on, inspiring not only generations of philosophers, but also leaving its mark in such movies as The Matrix and Solaris. Descartes' dualism is his view that mind and body are entirely distinct. This view has been supported by religious thinkers, by many philosophers impressed by the distinctive character of consciousness, and by some defenders of free will. Hume's Enquiry is famous for supposedly arguing for a form of skepticism that Descartes did not explicitly consider: skepticism about whether the future will resemble the past. His discussion of this issue is closely intertwined with a remarkable theory of causation, a theory which led him to hold that an action can be free, and so can merit praise or blame, even though it is causally determined.
About the Professor Mark Sainsbury taught at the University of Essex, Bedford College London, and King's College London before coming to the University of Texas at Austin. He has written five books (Russell, Paradoxes, Logical Forms, Departing from Frege and Reference without Referents).
Twelve Reports (2 marks each) Three short essays, maximum 1000 words each (12 marks each) One term paper (40 marks) Deadlines for these assessed pieces of written work will be announced on the first day of classes.
René Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy David Hume, Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. 1745 There will also be a course packet with supplementary material.