PAX ROMANA – PAX AMERICANA
Justifications for pax Romana & Roman rule:
1) Augustine, City of God 19.21, paraphrasing Cicero, Republic 3.36. The topic is Rome's subjugation of others:
et pro utilitate eorum fieri cum recte fit, id est cum improbis aufertur iniuriarum licentia
“When it’s done right, it’s done for their [the conquered peoples’] benefit, i. e. when the license to commit injustices is taken away from the bad guys.”
2) Livy, History of Rome 22.13.11 (Capua and other Italian cities not defecting from Rome during the Hannibalic War):
nec is terror, cum omnia bello flagrarent, fide socios dimovit, quia iusta et moderato regebantur imperio nec abnuebant, quod unum vinculum fidei est, melioribus parere.
“Nevertheless, not even the panic caused by these depredations, not even the flames of war all around them, could move Rome’s allies from their allegiance. And why? Because they were subject to just and moderate rule and were willing to obey their betters. That, surely, is the one true bond of loyalty."
3) Cf. Tacitus, Annals 13.56.1 (a Roman governor addressing German tribes):
patienda meliorum imperia
“The rule of the better must be borne” (cf. Maximus’ deputy commander in Gladiator: “People should know when they are conquered.”)
Benefits of Roman rule:
1) Strabo (time of Caesar and Augustus) 3.156 on Spain before and after the Roman conquest:
"The quality of intractability and wildness in these people has resulted not solely from their engaging in warfare, but also from their remoteness; for the trip to their country, whether by sea or land, is long, and since they are difficult to communicate with, they have lost the instinct of sociability and humanity (philanthropia). They have the feeling of intractability and wildness to a lesser extent now, however, because of the peace and the sojourns of Roman among them."
Later: Spaniards have become peaceful and civilized (politikous).
2) Cicero (Letter to Quintus Cicero, 1.1.34) on what the province of Asia (Turkey) has gained from Roman rule:
Freedom from the calamitas belli externi et domesticarum discordiarum, and otium.
In so many words: peace, domestic tranquillity, and the pursuit of happiness.