Introduction to Archaeological Studies II

Instructor: Constanze Witt


University of Texas at Austin

Classics Department

All of the images at this site are provided for non-commercial, study purposes only! Copyright is NOT granted for any other use.


Sample study map of Europe / Sample study map of Egypt

Sample blank map of Europe / Sampleblank map of Egypt -- test yourself!

Study map of the Aegean area / Study map of the Levant / Study map of the Near East and Mesopotamia / Study map showing archaeological sites in Greece

Paleolithic, cave contexts.

Color images of the Tuc d'Audoubert bison, Lascaux images
Chauvet cave: Wall with lionesses, rhinos etc. Owl drawn in clay with fingers. Negative hand print. Wall with horses, bison, rhinos etc.
Animal ivories from Hohle Fels, Germany
Oblique views of the lion-headed person from Hohlenstein-Stadel
Human figures: the woman from Willendorf views and comparanda (clothing), side view of ivory head of woman from Brassempouy, the relief of a woman from the Laussel cave, ca. 18" high.

Incised images on rockface, Addaura, Sicily, ca. 8000.
Stone hedgehog vessel, later 7th millennium (ca. 6000), Bouqras (Syria), 14.2 cm long.
Catal Huyuk, Anatolia, 7th-6th millennium. Residential (?) contexts. Plan, reconstruction drawing, wall painting that may represent buildings. Finds: imprint of basket, fibers, a bone implement, a burial under the floor, wall painting of "dancing hunter." Clay figurine of a woman seated on a "throne" with lioness arms, found in a grain bin, ca. 7th millennium BCE (heads of woman and left lion modern).
Jericho, West Bank, Section showing stratigraphy. Fortification tower, walls. Selection of pottery. Human skulls covered with painted plaster.
 The Iceman, glacier in the south Tyrolean alps, late 4th millennium: the discovery, associated finds, reconstruction of clothing and objects.
Hierakonpolis, Egypt. Painting on wall of tomb
Newgrange, Ireland, ca. 3200

Bronze Age.

Mesopotamia, Sumer, Akkad, Lagash:
Precipitation map
Alabaster vase, Uruk, ca.3500, 92 cm high.
Cone mosaic, Temple of Eanna, Uruk, ca. 3500.
Uruk ziggurat and White Temple to Anu, ca. 3000, plan and view.
Stone sculpture of female votary , from Tutub temple to Sin, 43 cm high,
Burnt City, Iran
Early Dynastic, ca. 3000-2900
Stone sculpture of the scribe Dudu, a votive to Ningirsu, 45 cm high, Early Dynastic, ca. 2900-2450.
Color image of two Tell Asmar figures from the Abu Temple, Early Dynastic, ca. 27-2600.
Objects from the tomb of Puabi, Early Dynastic Ur, ca. 2700: beaded cape and other jewelry; close-up view of beads as restrung; frontal view of bull-headed lyre; gold, lapis, carnelian headdress of Puabi. Skull in situ of another female burial, Ur. "Ram in the thicket" sculpture or stand, from multiple burial "great death pit," Ur. Wooden box from a tomb, "Standard of Ur," with lapis, shell and limestone inlays, 8" x 19" -- detail of "peace" and "war" sides.
Building inscription and relief of Urnanshe, from Tello, ca. 2500.
Ziggurat, Ur, ca. 2100 -- reconstruction, reconstruction drawing, detail of staircase,
Stone sculpture of Gudea, Lagash, ca. 2120, ca. 75 cm high. Another head of Gudea.
Cuneiform: Seals, tokens and bullae; a table showing the progression to cuneiform signs. School tablets from Nippur on which students practiced simple wedge marks, meaningless combinations of wedges, syllables, and entire grammatical paradigms; tablet with teacher's lesson and "scratch pad" for student.
Hittite, Babylonian:
Map of Hittite reign; plan of Hattusha/Bogazkoy; view of Hattusha/Bogazkoy; view of Yazilikaya sanctuary; detail view of relief sculpture of Tuthalia IV, ca. 1250.
Plan of the palace at Mari.
Stepped pyramid and enclosure of Djoser, Saqqara, partly reconstructed facades, engaged columns, reconstruction model.
Giza pyramids: possible means of construction using various ramps; reconstruction drawing of the mortuary complexes; central aisle of the valley temple of Khafre's pyramid,; Khufu's boat.
Wood sculpture of Ka-Aper, from mastaba tomb, Saqqara, ca. 2500.
Color photo of the hippopotamus hunt painted relief, tomb of Ti, Saqqara, ca. 2500.
Wood statuette of female bier-carrier, Dyn. XII tomb, ca. 1900
Wood statuette of steward Mentuhotep, Dyn XII Thebes tomb, ca. 1900, found next to heart of mummy in coffin
Hatshepsut's funerary temple, drawing of relief showing transport of two obelisks by river barge, Dyn XVIII, ca. 1475
Color views of Ramesses II's temple at Luxor: full view of pylons, inner courtyard with reed columns, hypostyle hall with flower and bud capitals, colossi
-- at Karnak, a colonnade with the colossus of Pinudjem and wife, Dyn. XXI
-- at Abu Simbel
 -- at Thebes (Ramesseum): colossus fragments with tourist for scale, feet; relief of Ramesses II at the battle of Kadesh
Sculpture of Akhenaten at Karnak; Nefertiti at Amarna; 3/4 view of wood head of Tiye

Aegean Bronze Age: chronology, map, map showing shipwreck sites and eastern Mediterranaean

Early Cycladic, Early Helladic, Troy II (3rd millennium BCE):
-- Cyclades: Female figure, ca. 2400, from Syros, 18" high. Figure of lyre player, ca. 2600, from Keros, 9" high. Head of statue, ca. 2700-2400, Spedos type, 10.5" high. Steatite Pyxis (box with lid) from Naxos, ca. 2700-2300, 14.8 x 7.2 cm ; Terracortta hedgehog (zoomorphic rhyton) from Syros, ca. 2200, 10.8 cm; Terracotta kernos (small vessels in a ring, here around a larger vessel), Cycladic, ca. 2300-2100, 25.7 cm.
-- Lerna: plan; architectural phases incl. fortifications, House of Tiles, 25x12 m; excavation of fortification wall; herringbone masonry and mud bricks; tower; plan of House of Tiles with tumulus over it; reconstruction plans of first and second floors; view of House of Tiles from west; tiles in situ; a rooftile; plastered wall; projectile points of obsidian from Melos and local chert; denticulated sickle blades; EH III finds: pedestal-foot cup; terracotta "sauceboat"; seal impressions in clay; drawing of sealings.
-- Troy: view of the mound across the Hellespont, view from the North; stratigraphy of the mound; plan from 1904 showing the different periods of development
Troy II (ca. 2500-2200): walls; paved ramp and walls; gold diadem; gold "sauceboat"; gold, silver and bronze vessels, jewelry etc.
Map of Crete; Minoan world
Landscape views of Thera/Santorini, the Zakro Gorge, the palace area at Knossos, the paved central court at Phaistos with Mt Ida.
Aerial views of tombs at Mochlos, the palaces at Mallia and Phaistos, the palace at Knossos and the surrounding area (unexcavated ancient city)
Views of Knossos: southern wall with "horns of consecration," color view of court and staircase in Stokstad Fig 4-6 with figure-8 shields, north propylaea with tapered columns and bull fresco reconstructed by Evans, storage magazine with pithoi
Intaglio seal rings: "mountain goddess" with lions, male and architectural feature; scene of worship with tree in enclosure and man holding baetyl; bull-leaper. Sealing of cityscape and male figure.
Minor arts: bronze figurine of male; stone beaker with 2 male figures; additional views of stone "harvesters" vase: "foreman," ranks of men with winnowing forks.
Thera wall paintings: children boxing and antelope; woman perhaps gathering saffron; miniature fresco of flotilla of ships and city

Middle and Late Bronze Age, Mycenean

Map of the Mycenaean World
 -- Troy VI (ca. 1800-1275): Plan showing furthest extent of Troy VI (excavated); plan of important buildings incl. Troy VI; reconstructions of different levels with level VI in red; pottery in the storage room, mainly Late helladic: Late Helladic pottery sherds; a stirrup jar
Trojan War: map of protagonists
-- Mycenae: view of the site; plan; view of Grave Circle A; view of the Lioness Gate from the inside; stele from grave Circle A; view of the dromos of the "Tomb of Clytemnestra"; plan and section of tholos tomb
-- Pylos: plan of the "Palace of Nestor"
-- other: typical late stirrup jar with very simple decor
The Levant:
Ugaritic: first real alphabet, ca. 1400. Development of the Phoenician alphabet, examples; the Greek alphabet
Plan of Jerusalem in Old Testament times; remains of Jebusite walls, reconstruction drawing of walls built by David on top of Jebusite walls; Temple Mount area showing possible locations of Solomon's temple; possible reconstruction plan and drawing of Solomon's temple
Gold and stone necklace from Mari, 14th-13th c. gold bowl from Ugarit and detail, 14th c.; bronze and gold statuettes of gods from Ugarit, ca. 13cm high, 14th-13th c.; ivory head from Megiddo, 13th c.
The "House of Yahweh" ostrakon, ca. 9th-7th c., findsite unknown, with Hebrew text: According to your order, Ashyahu the king, to give by the hand of [Z]echaryahu silver of Tarshish for the house of Yahweh 3 shekels
Tell Dan inscription, ca. 9th c.: fragments; the Aramaic text in Hebrew and English translations

Early Iron Age.

(Neo)-Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian
Map of Assyrian expansion, 9th-8th c.
Lamassu from Nimrud, the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II, first half 9th c.; plan of NW palace; fragments of plaster from NW palace; reliefs of Ashurnasirpal II at banquet, libating over a dead bull and detail, hunting lions from a chariot, detail of a lion; reliefs of Genius figures (genii): winged man before tree, detail of head, detail of hand with situla, bird-headed genii flanking tree, head of bird-headed genius
Bronze-clad doors of Shalmaneser III, Balawat, ca. 850-825; detail of bronze relief scene of war
Sargon II, Khorsabad (Dur Sharrukin), ca. 720-705: reconstruction of citadel, Stokstad 2-22; lamassu; holding lion
Sennacherib, Nineveh, ca. 705-680: relief sculpture: siege of Judah, detail of sappers undermining the city walls, detail of siege machinery -- tower and battering ram
Ashurbanipal, Nineveh, ca. 645: relief sculpture: war with Chaldeans; king with lions; king with bodyguards; spearing lion; king slays lion; captive lion is released; wounded lion
Nebuchadnezzar II, Babylon, ca. 575: Ishtar gate plan; glazed tile elements restored in museum; figure of bull


Greek: Proto- and Geometric
Map of Dark Age Greece,
Karphi plan, 10th c.
Lefkandi,10th c.: plan of "heroon"; reconstruction drawing of "heroon"; horse burial; head of centaur
Protogeometric skyphos from the Kerameikos, Athens, 10th c.
Geometric belly-handled amphora, "Athens 804" with prothesis scene, mid-8th c., 1.55 m high,; detail of geometric krater cf. Stokstad fig 5-6 showing prothesis scene with bier and shroud;
Geometric bronze horse, later 9th c., 17.6 cm high; bronze tripod cauldron from Olympia, 8th c., 65 cm high;
Map of Greek and Phoenician Colonization
Protocorinthian olpe, "Chigi vase" mid-7th c., found near Veii, Etruria; detail with horsemen and hunt; detail with hoplite phalanx and double-aulos player
Protoattic funerary amphora, mid-7th c., 1.44 m high, found at Eleusis; scene on neck: Odysseus and men blind Polyphemos; scene on body: the Gorgons and Perseus
Mantiklos "Apollo" -- bronze figurine, ca. 700-675, 20 cm high, from Thebes, Boeotia; inscription in hexameter: Mantiklos dedicated me to the Farshooter with the Silver Bow [Apollo] as a tithe [tenth part]; grant,Apollo, good things in return"
Temple of Apollo at Thermon, ca.640, plan, reconstruction of the entablature, polychrome painted metope
"Daedalic" style: Lady found at Auxerre, France, probably from Crete, ca. 625, 65 cm high; Temple at Prinias, Crete:irregular plan, frieze of horsemen, lintel block with seated figures 1.66m high
Map: Persian War
Metropolitan Kouros, ca. 600, Stokstad 5-20, seen at an angle
François volute krater, potted by Ergotimos, painted by Kleitias, Stokstad 5-27: additional views and details:, boar hunt and chariot race, fountain house, other side, arriving boat with Athenians and dancers, centauromachy, return of Hephaistos to Olympus, handle with potnia theron, Achilles & Ajax
Moschophoros, Stokstad 5-25, angled view
Pots by Exekias, ca. 540: Kylix, tondo with Dionysos in a boat; detail of Dionysos; exterior with eyes; exterior under handle; Amphora with Achilles slaying Penthesilea, detail; Amphora with Achilles and Ajax playing a board game, detail
Andokides Painter bilingual amphora, ca. 520: Herakles reclining: black Figure side, detail of Herakles; Red Figure side, detail of Herakles
Delphi: view from above the Athenian Treasury; view of theater
Olympia: polychrome terracotta geison of the Geloan Treasury, 6th c.
Map of Etruria; table showing the Etruscan script and Latin
Tomb of the Augurs, Tarquinia, 550-20: wall with painted door, wall with sporting and ritual events, detail of wrestlers
Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, Tarquinia, 520-490: diver, fishing and birding; detail of fisher
 "Severe" Style
Temple of Zeus: east pediment, Zeus flanked by Pelops and King Oinomaos and chariots; metope det. head of Atlas; for other images see Olympia Web Site
Kritios Boy (Stokstad 5-36) views: head and shoulders, rear 3/4 view, front 3/4 view, side and back of head
Riace Warrior B; detail of Riace Warrior A (Stokstad 5-38): face
The bronze god (Zeus?) from Cape Artemision, c. 460, 2.09 m tall, 2.10 m fingertip to fingertip; detail 
Pan Painter bell krater, eponymous scene (other side of Stokstad 5-39)
Tomb of the Diver, Paestum, ca. 480, painted stucco: ceiling block, 1.02m high; long sides with symposion scene; short sides
Brygos Painter Kylix, ca. 480: exterior komos scene, revelers under handle, tondo
High Classical
Map: Peloponnesian Wars, trade routes
For the Parthenon, use web images
 Diadoumenos of Polykleitos, ca. 430, Roman marble copy
Segesta, Sicily, unfinished and/or hypaethral Doric temple, second half 5th c., view of site, 3/4 view of temple, view of stylobate showing curvature
Drawing: curvature (Parthenon)
Late Classical/Fourth Century
Temple of Athena Nike, late 5th c, frieze details: interwoven fight scene; falling Amazon
Maussoleum at Halikarnassos, ca.350, frieze details: Amazons, Greeks and Persians; Amazon attacks Greek about to kill other Amazon; Amazon attacks Greek while other Amazon rides backwards; flying drapery and use of levels; pyramidal composition; slashing diagonal
Roman copy of Apoxyomenos (scraper) by Lysippos,, from left, frontal, in a bronze copy/adaptation 
Vergina, Macedonian: view of excavation site of necropolis; tomb facade under excavation; plan of palace; reconstruction of palace
"Tomb of Philip II" (?) ca. 340: cutaway view showing barrel vault and tumulus; facade during excavation; facade with painted frieze and architecture; hunt painting; detail of horseman; detail of "Alexander" (?); painted geison detail; interior door; west side with sarcophagus and remains of wooden kline; southwest corner with bronze vessels and shield; small sarcophagus with gold larnax inside; textiles, gold, ashes and bones in larnax; cloth and gold; reconstructed drawing of wood kline; cf. left and right ends of kline in Bella Mound; ivories from wood kline: Dionysos and satyr, heads of youth (Alexander?) and old man with scar (Philip?); sword hilt; helmet; iron and bronze cuirass; chryselephantine shield in situ; chryselephantine shield reconstructed; north wall with silver and bronze banquet vessels; gorytos and greaves; unequal pair of greaves
"Tomb of Persephone" ca. 340: view of interior; "Fate"; Demeter on short east wall; abduction of Persephone; details: Hermes; Hades, chariot group; Persephone, Kyane
Map of the Hellenistic Kingdoms of the diadochoi; the kingdoms in 90 BCE
Dying Gaul, Stokstad 5-79: view in museum; oblique view; head
Gauls group: side with wife; 2 views
Nike of Samothrace,, ca. 190 BCE: in color; straight on view on prow of ship; slightly oblique view
Athens, Stoa of Attalos ca 150-140 BCE: before reconstruction, after reconstruction, detail of Doric and Ionic orders, interior view
Portraits: Alexander Mosaic and detail from House of the Faun, Pompeii; Alexander the Great from Pella, from Egypt; Philetairos of Pergamon, ca 280, oblique; Attalos I of Pergamon, c. 200; possibly Lysimachos of Thrace, oblique view
Pergamon: plan, model of acropolis, propylon, street, theater; Great Altar of Zeus, Stokstad 5-80, ca 160 BCE: Gigantomachy frieze details: Okeanos and giants fighting on stairs; gods and giants intertwined; Zeus; Athena; detail of Ge, mother of giants; Hekate w/dogs and Artemis; detail; Keto w/ lion; possibly Nyx, the night; a goddess
Terme "Hellenistic Ruler" original bronze, early 2nd c. BCE, (cf. Stokstad 5-87), views: front, right, back, oblique views, head from 3/4 front, right, left, 3/4 rear
Terme Boxer, original bronze early 1st c. BCE, views: straight on, 3/4 right, right, back, left, head from left, head from front, head from right, head 3/4 right, hands with boxing gloves frontal and oblique.
Genre figures, Roman copies: drunken old woman, casts of 2 copies; boy with goose, casts of 3 copies
Street Musicians Mosaic by Dioskourides of Samos, Pompeii, after Hellenistic original
Roman Republican, Augustan
Map of Republican Rome and Carthage in 218 BCE; Map of Rome in 51 BCE; map of Roman trade routes
Ara Pacis plan, elevation (section), west side, Aeneas relief, Tellus relief, panel with plant tendrils, interior with boukrania and garlands, altar relief
Boscoreale (Stokstad 6-34) details: cityscape; detail of door; grotto and fountain; yellow city frieze
Aqueduct of Segovia, Spain; Pont du Gard and bridging river
Maison Carree, Nimes, engaged half columns; pediment.
Roman Imperial
Map of the Empire, to Hadrian; Plan of Rome under Caracalla; later Roman Empire and barbarian invasions
Colosseum: detail of annular vault and arcade; view of interior; substructures under floor; vaulting system
Arch of Titus; view of arch and engaged columns; Titus in triumph relief; sack of Jerusalem relief
Forum of Trajan model; plan of Basilica Ulpia
Column of Trajan details of frieze: lower part with river; garrison; legionnaires; middle section
Pantheon: change of light through oculus; interior of dome; interior
Plan of Miletos
Portraits: Caracalla; fragments of colossal Constantine; head, hand
Last updated: Wednesday, 26-Apr-2006 17:21:49 CDT