G = Gates; N = Nagle; S=
Feel free to use the 5th edition of
Nagle if you can't get the 6th.
Please use the 2002 version of Stokstad if possible.
For 1/18: Read the front matter and
Introduction to Stokstad. Look at your daily surroundings.
Do you live in an image-rich world? What roles do images
play in your life?
For 1/20: explore the
web sites after you have read the Introduction and Chapter 1
(Paleolithic) of Stokstad. Try to use your non-perspectival
vision, viewing the images without imposing ideas of space.
Imagine experiencing the spaces of the caves and their
approaches. Use your new
art-historical vocabulary to describe the images. Were the
early stone age people "civilized"?
For 1/23: View the images for
Paleolithic and Neolithic. If these early people are mainly
concerned with survival, what are they doing creating works
of art? Why is some of their art "abstract"? What does their
architecture tell you about the social structure?
For 1/25: Of the items we study for
today, which are solely for the accumulation or display of
wealth? Are any? What role does wealth play? What role does
For 1/27: Think about the different
physical settings we are exploring and how the shape human
experience, and in turn the built environment. What is the
impact of access to trade routes and commodities?
For 1/ 30: What are the civic institutions that go into
making up a city? a state? What is "kingship"?
What are some of the major
international trends in the 3rd millennium BCE? Compare and
contrast the Egyptian view of nature and the built
environment with that of early Mesopotamia. How do their
climate and topography affect aspects of life and thought?
How are relations between cities organized?
For 2/1: Consider the role of writing, the role of the
scribe, and that of the tablet - the inscribed object. And
what of the holy brick-mold??
For 2/6: The fluctuations in the fortunes of the great
cities and lands can be confusing -- make sure you have the
basic ideas down. Would the Codex Hammurapi work as a modern
law code? Why or why not? What was important and why? Is the
Hymn to Ninkasi one you would sing while making or consuming
beer? Why or why not? Local copies: Codex
For 2/8: Local copy: Hittite
Laws (excerpts). Read them with the Codex Hammurapi in
mind -- what similarities and differences in content,
concerns, emphasis, historical context, etc., can you
- ALERT: You are
encouraged to attend the free talk below. Write up a
paragraph summary for extra credit. Tom Palaima is a very
fun and informative speaker.
- THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 9, 7
P.M. LECTURE at the Ransom Center -- Tom Palaima,
Professor of Classics at UT and a MacArthur fellow for
his work in Aegean prehistory and early Greek language
and culture, inquires "Why Write When You Can Speak,
Sing, and Remember?"
For 2/10: What can Minoan art and architecture tell
you about the society? How would you characterize Knossos
relative to the other cities we have seen? Did these people
live in isolation?
For 2/13: What are the new conventions of representation
in the Amarna period? How do they compare with those of
previous periods in Egypt? in Mesopotamia? in the Aegean?
For 2/15: What do we mean when we speak of "palace"
society? As you read the introduction to Linear
B and the chapter on its discovery, consider the
questions raised in the introduction. We will read about
decipherment next week; compare and contrast the nature of
Linear B with the other scripts you have read about
(cuneiform, hieroglyphic). What assumptions would you make
if confronted with a new, undeciphered ancient script?
For 2/17: Test 1. see sample answers to Quiz 1 (on
eReserves) and sample test
For 2/20 - 22: Be sure you understand the process
of decipherment of Linear B, and the characteristics of the
script, as far as understood. What is the nature of the
texts, and what do they tell us about the society? What did
the Mycenaeans borrow from the Minoans, and what aspects of
their culture were innovations? Differentiate Troy from the
other Bronze Age cities.
- Extra Credit: Watch the "Troy" movie and contrast the
city as depicted with how you know it really was, as
shown in your readings. You may want to read a bit of the
Iliad first. Be very specific.
- Mega EXTRA CREDIT: As Sarah mentioned, never a dull
moment with Troy. On the occasion of the 2001 exhibition
"Troia -- Dream and Reality," a passionate debate took
place in the German and then international press between
the archaeologist leading the new excavations, Manfred
Korfmann, and the ancient historian Frank Kolb, and their
factions. Sarah was only able to present a few elements
of the controversy in class today. For some really juicy,
mudslinging fun, read about the Korfmann/Kolb controversy
and write a two- or three-page summary of the
ARCHAEOLOGICAL issues. Show how the archaeology is
used/abused/? in the arguments. Go to the Project
Troia site, click on Controversy and Recent Articles
links for readings. Be sure to look at illustrations.
What are your thoughts?
- Another TALK ALERT: Thursday the 23 in the Classics
Lounge (WAG 116) at 3:30: Roger Woodard (SUNY Buffalo) on
"Chthonic Spirits and Sacred Spaces"
For 2/24: Read this
short article for an overview of the freakadelic ideas
circulating about the mysterious Sea Peoples. Get to know
the major players in the time of the early Iron Age. Get
your time line caught up. What are the major events and
players, and what does the map look like around 1250? Around
For 2/27: Review the 10
Commandments (Exodus 20-23), comparing them to the Codex
Hammurapi and the Hittite Laws. What do they tell you about
the nature of the society, the relationships between humans,
property and the deities? Read all of 1 Samuel (and 2 Samuel
if you have the stamina). Think about what kind of figure
David is. List his personal characteristics, and his deeds.
What kind of hero-king is he? What kind of society does he
live in? Why is he such a big deal in Western mythology?
For 3/1: When reading the selections from the Iliad,
compare with the Epic of Gilgamesh, and consider the same
questions: what archaeologically important information can
we glean? how is the physical environment described? What
social structures are evident? How is a hero characterized?
In the selection from
Book XVIII, you can skip ahead to the Shield of Achilles
description. What kind of world is being depicted by the god
Hephaistos? Is it appropriate for armor?
For 3/3: Okay, you now have four, count 'em, 4 different
law codes under scrutiny. Compare and contrast them. What
are the priorities and preoccupations of the different
societies? What kinds of due process is provided for? What
kinds of punishment? Are they "just"? What are the purposes
As thrilling as the story of the Cyclopes (in the
is, please keep archaeological and sociological questions in
mind as you read. What can you learn about Odysseus's world,
its values, concerns and major features? How are the
Cyclops, Odysseus and his men characterised? Is a hero
defined in quite the same way in the Iliad and the Odyssey?
What does it mean to be civilized? -- I do not expect you to
understand every word Ian Morris writes, but he does have
some very interesting and valuable insights. And it wouldn't
be an archaeology course without reading SOME Morris.
For 3/ 6: Ruminate on the nature of Geometric art.
Note that it looks different in different places. Is this
how you picture the world of the Iliad and the Odyssey?What
similarities do you see between the art and the poetry?
For 3/8: How would you characterize the accounts of the
Assyrian king Sennacherib's forays against Hezekiah? Which
do you incline to believe and why? How do the Babylonian
proverbs compare with the biblical ones? What can they tell
us about the societies that produced them?
For 3/10: Please remember as you read in S Ch. 5
that there was no such thing as "the Greeks." The people who
lived in what is now modern Greece, or those who spoke a
dialect of ancient Greek, did NOT consider themselves all
one happy family. We speak of "Greek" art and culture
because there are items from a certain area that show
similarities, but there is great local variation, and the
people themselves did not call themselves Greeks. They did
have an "us" and "them" mentality only in terms of language:
those who spoke Greek were Hellenes, and those who didn't
were "barbaroi," barbarians. So we are studying the art and
history of people who spoke Greek, whether in Greece, on the
Turkish coast, or in Southern Italy and Sicily.
Read the poem of Sappho with special delight. It is a
very new discovery from last summer. Her poems are very
rare, although she was considered one of the most
outstanding poets of all antiquity. Here
is the story of how it was put together from two
fragmentary papyri. Sappho is the poet and teacher on the
island of Lesbos whose songs of love between women inspired
the term "lesbian." Again, with Herodotus, don't just enjoy
the wild shenanagins, but also notice what we can glean from
an archaeological point of view. You will need to read book
V after break, so this might be a good time to read it as
well. Considering Herodotus as an historian, an
ethnographer, a psychologist, and a geographer. What are his
priorities, his values, his world view? What roles do women,
fate, the gods, human failings, landscape, climate, and
Have a good break, and everyone stay safe!
For 3/20: Read the article on agonistic
exchange carefully after having read the
selections from Homer. Think about the approach used to
interpret the society via the texts. How would you use
archaeology to test those interpretations? When reading the
and Days and the Shield,
compare Hesiod's world view and values to Homer's, and to
those presented in the Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Israelite
texts. Does it matter that Hesiod was not an aristocrat? Why
does he begin by talking about Strife? How does Hesiod
describe the proper relationships within a family, a
community? between neighbors or strangers, between men and
women, between people and gods? What roles in his world are
played by nature, cities, money, the gods, fate, justice,
work? Does he give good advice?
Law is a
5th-century stone inscription recording a late 7th-century
Athenian law on homicide. What does the word "draconian"
mean in English? How does the law's response to homicide
compare to those in previous laws you have read? What does
this tell you about the society?
For 3/22: Here
is an alternate source for a translation of Herodotus (we
are reading Book 5, Ionian Revolt). In terms of cities, what
do "slavery" and "freedom" mean? How are the Persians
characterized? How does one conclude an alliance? How does
one start a colony and why? You now know the reasons or
origins of what phenomena? -- The Persian inscription
at Behistun tells of the
deeds of Darius -- who is he, and how are his exploits
described? Is the same kind of hero as others we have read
about? Why is the same inscription written in three
languages? -- How would you characterize Persian art and
architecture of this time? What does it tell you about the
For 3/27: Can you keep straight in your head who is who
in the Persian Wars?? No? That's because sides change
constantly. You are not even reading the accounts of the war
itself ... If you would like to, here is a link to Herodotus
at Perseus, beginning with Book
VI. And here is Xenophon's Anabasis
at Perseus. It's a rip-roaring good read. Try to keep in
mind what profound effects the encounters with the Persians
had on the Greeks.
In reading up on Magna Graecia, have a clear picture in
your mind of the map of southern Italy and Sicily, and think
about what the relations would be with other Greek cities,
with the indigenous population, with other foreign powers,
and with the mother city.
For 3/29: Test 2! Map, terms, image IDs, text, short
essay. BRING TIME LINES.
For 3/31: As you will have noted when updating your
time-lines, there is another player on the scene -- Italy
and the West. Etruria and early Rome are undergoing their
own development at the same time as the Greeks, and in close
interaction with them. Livy's Early History of Rome
(Book 1) is filled with unfamiliar names -- don't worry
about them. Get the main ideas of the traditions central to
Roman ideas of the past. What values are important? How is
society structured? Explore the meanings underlying the
tales of Romulus and Remus and others, the depictions of the
Etruscans, and the roles of women, heroes, kings, and the
gods in the story of Rome. Evaluate how Livy, a Roman living
in the first century BCE, presents the story of the early
days of Rome. What does it tell you about the attitudes of
Livy and his circle of contemporaries?
For 4/3: the selection
from Pausanias's description
of Greece is a very abbreviated version of his long
description of Olympia. We are studying the late
Archaic-early Classical sanctuary, but Pausanias saw it in
the mid-second century CE, so his descriptions include later
monuments and changes. How useful is Pausanias as a guide?
What can he tell us about the effects of nostalgia,
preservation, innovation, the agonistic impulse, and ritual
on the sanctuary? What can he tell us about the nature of
competitive athletics, money and politics?
For 4/5: You are reading about possibly the most famous
period of ancient Greek history, the wars between Athens and
Sparta.Who wins, and why? Read the selections from Thucydides
with Herodotus in mind. What kind of ethnographer is each?
How does each conceive his task as an historian? How do the
Persians and Greeks described by Herodotus compare with the
Greeks described by Thucydides? The Plague
Oration selections give two very different pictures of
the city of Athens during the war. In part he gives a
worm's-eye view of the life of regular people in the city.
What are the problems and the advantages of the city?
Consider the question of heroism -- how do Thucydides'
heroes compare with those in earlier writings? What is
"democratic" about Athens, and what isn't? Euripides'
Ion takes place at the
sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi. What does it tell us about
the physical setting, the rites and rituals, and the daily
existence of a temple community? What does the play express
about Athenian family life, citizenship, birth, and social
standing? What does it mean to be "earth born"?
For 4/7: As you have read, Athens is the "school of
Hellas," the epitome of the Classical style. Take your time
exploring the city
of Athens web site, and be sure to follow the links to
the QTVR panoramas at Metis
-- flying through them is the next best thing to being
there. You do need some bandwidth.
In reading about the philosophies and literature of
Classical Athens, keep in mind the historical events. Why
are hybris and nemesis such important concepts?
hybris: reckless disregard for others, pride, lack of
What changes does the "hero" undergo?
What is daily life in Athens like for a citizen male,
female, foreigner, metic, slave?
For 4/10: Like Athens, Rome was an insignificant city
that rose to have imperial aspirations, but in the case of
Rome, there was no Sparta to put an end to them. In the
early years of Rome, Republican society developed unique
social, domestic, political, religious, artistic and
architectural forms of its own. What are the major traits?
For 4/12: When Aristotle writes about the nature of the
state and the nature of men and women within the state, keep
in mind how profoundly influential his ideas have been
throughout history. At once, of course, as the tutor of
Alexander the Great. Plutarch's Life of Alexander
was written over 400 years after Alexander lived; however,
since he often uses as sources the writings of men who
actually traveled with Alexander and knew him well, his
accounts of the events are often based on eyewitness
testimony. At the same time, both Alexander's contemporaries
and Plutarch himself had their own agendas and biases that
are reflected in their accounts. Note Plutarch's
psychological approach. With the enormous scope of
Alexander's travels and deeds, what archaeological traces
would you expect to find?
When you read the New Comedy of Menander (Epitrepontes),
compare it to the Old Comedy of Aristophanes (Lysistrata)
Does comedy have anything to tell us about the lives and
cultures of the people? Is there a modern genre that
approximates Old Comedy? New Comedy? What is your favorite
sit-com or soap opera? What will it tell future
archaeologists about your culture?
For 4/14: What is Polybius' audience? What is his bias?
What kind of historian is he, compared with Herodotus and
Thucydides? What kind of view do we really have of Carthage,
Palimpsest site is navigated from the little doodles at
the top of the page. It is a truly exciting story in modern
archaeology and the use of new technologies in reading
ancient manuscripts! You don't have to try to understand its
contents, but get a good idea of the story behind it.
For 4/17: Please read today's poems when you are in
a good mood and ready for a laugh! Alexandrian poetry is
court poetry, written for the Ptolemies and their hoity
pals, but the subject matter is bucolic, pastoral, or
downright ribald. Can you think of similar cases where
extreme urbanization leads to fascination with rural or
For 4/19: The most important passages in the Aeneid, for
our purposes, are linked in Book
1 and Book 8.
Although Virgil is writing about events of the same "heroic
age" as Homer, his consciously literary and Augustan
approach makes for a very different sort of epic poem. If
you are very confused, here are a useful study
guide. The two cities involved are Carthage and Rome
(again). Compare the description of Dido's city to what you
know about Roman city planning and construction, and to
Evander's account of early Rome. Compare the foundation
myths in Virgil and Livy. Compare the description of Aeneas'
shield to the previous shield descriptions. What priorities
and values are expressed?
For 4/21: Is Virgil's Augustus recognizable in the
Deeds (Res Gestae)?
Compare Augustus' self-representation with those of other
leaders in earlier readings. What kind of a hero is he?
Other than conquest and money, what are the Deeds really
about? Compare the messages of the Deeds and the Ara
Pacis as two items of Augustan propaganda.
For 4/24: Pliny the Younger's two letters (6.16,
6.20) describing the
eruption of Mt Vesuvius and the desctruction of Pompeii
provide a remarkable eyewitness account to complement the
archaeological evidence. The web sites highlight a private
villa on Sicily and the civic
architecture of Pompeii. How is Roman "public" and
"private" space similar to and different from ours? Can your
"read" the narrative on the walls of the villa, and in the
Forum architecture? Compare the guest/host relationship in
Greece with the Roman parton/client relationship -- what
archaeological evidence would you expect to find?
For 4/26: Today's readings cover two extremes of the
Roman experience. Juvenal (local
copy) pokes hilarious fun at all the horrible things he
observes in the city of Rome, while Josephus (local
copy) chronicles the Roman sack of Jerusalem under Titus
in 70 CE. Why did Umbricius leave Rome? Can any of his
objections be confirmed archaeologically? What kinds of
evidence would you look for? Is it clear from Josephus that
Rome is crushing a rebellion? Compare this account with the
other accounts of war that you have read. How does Josephus'
narrative stance influence your reading? What archaeological
evidence is there for his account? The Fori
Imperiali site includes some wonderful, if too clean
(see Juvenal) and perfect reconstructions of ancient Rome.
To enjoy the Webcam, remember the time difference.
For 4/28: The Eutropius passage is very short (local
copy), and gives a compressed bio of Marcus Aurelius,
author of the still-influential "meditations."
What makes a "good emperor"? Compare this passage to Tacitus
on Augustus, Nagle p. 323. What made the institution of the
Principate necessary, and what finally made it untenable?
How does the Roman empire fare when compared with the other
empires you have studied?
For 5/1: The Conversion
of Constantine while fighting Maxentius is one of the
great legends of early Christianity. What is truly weird
about Eusebius' account? What kind of hero-king is
Constantine? What is Old-Testament Biblical about him?
For 5/3: Read enough of the Procopius
to get a sense of the city of
Constantinople/Byzantium/Istanbul. How does Constantinople
compare with contemporary Rome? How does Christianity fit
into the picture? What are the concerns, values and
priorities of life in the Eastern empire? How are they
expressed in the Hagia
Sophia in particular? Compare Procopius' approach to
description of monuments to those of Pausanias and our
For 5/5: You do not need to read the works of St
Augustine (for this class), just get a good idea of his
life, works and influence. Particularly useful are the
essays on the Confessions and the epilogue
"Reconsiderations" on the Introduction: Life and Works page.
If you do not have time to read anything else, here is an
interesting article on Augustine's Confessions and
early Christian Grave
Art. Consider the different forms of monument, memorial,
and memory discussed, the different types of narrative, and
the uses to which these are put. In what other cultures have
you observed analogous phenomena?
THINK OF QUESTIONS TO REVIEW
Museum is now open -- visit the plaster cast collection
and write an essay for extra credit! Also great place to
study for final exam ...
NOTE: Change of Room for Exam: WAG
10 on May 15, 2-5 pm