Zoo 317 Heredity, Evolution and Society

Lecture 25 Cummings 13: pp 308-313; 318-326
GENETIC MARKERS; APPLICATIONS OF DNA TECHNOLOGY

I. What are genetic markers?

II. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

III. Variable number of tandem repeats.

IV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms.

V. Gene therapy.

VI. Transgenic organisms.

Terms.


I. Genetic markers are inherited variations that can be used to understand genetic events. They have a number of applications.

II. Some of the techniques developed for DNA manipulation are used to detect DNA variations known as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs).

III. Repetitive sequences of DNA are especially useful genetic markers.

IV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) are variations in the nucleotide present at a specific position on a chromosome. These are becoming especially important as markers because (1) they are very stable, i.e. have very low mutation rates; and (2) they can be amplified with PCR for testing.

V. The techniques developed for gene cloning are the basis for most approaches to gene therapy.

VI. Genes can be inserted into other species to create transgenic organisms. Several distinctive procedures exist for different organisms.


Terms
genetic marker polymorphic monomorphic
restriction fragment length polymorphism  single nucleotide polymorphism   repetitive sequence 
 variable number of tandem repeats  minisatellite microsatellite
transgenic chimera knockout mouse

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last revision: 25 October 1999
owned by: Dr. Eldon Sutton