Introduction to the Ancient World: Greece

Lecture 26

Hellenistic Civilization - finale

I. Art and architecture (cf. Lect. 25): Drama! Pathos! Theatricality!

Alexander: gazing heavenward
Pergamon: The Great Altar of Zeus; Gods vs. Giants (images 25.8-14)
and Dying Gauls (25.28-30)
Contorted Aphrodites: Venus de Milo; Crouching Aphrodite (25.23)
Dramatic temples: the Acropolis of Lindos, Temple of Athena (Rhodes); Fortuna at Praeneste (Italy):
unearthed by WWII bombing; reconstruction
Capturing the inner essence not through classicism (cf. Charioteer from Delphi),
but realism: The Boxer (25.15)

II. The goal of the new philosophies: a-pathy 

A. Stoicism (Zeno 335-263 B.C.): Thy will be done; to hagion pneuma (= the Holy Spirit);
modern usage, e.g. Stoic upper lip; Stoa (building)
B. Epicureanism (Epicurus 341-270 B.C.): a material world, atoms;
modern connotation (WRONG!): eat, drink, be merry  

III. Learning and Inventiveness: Alexandria (25.3-6, 26.4)

new underwater discoveries: Heracleion  

A. math and science:

1. Eratosthenes (285-194 B.C.): circumference of earth; (see A&L, p. 204)
his map of the world
2. Archimedes (287-212 B.C.): specific gravity; Eureka! 
3. heliocentrism, world as globe 

B. Library of Alexandria - and its modern recreation; Septuagint 
C. technology and gizmos: Hero of Alexandria (1st cent. CE) 
D. medicine:

1. Herophilus (330-260 B.C.): anatomy, vivisection; discovers cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord,
ovaries, fallopian tube, etc.; surgical instruments
2. Context: magic, temple healing (Asclepius

Lecture 26 Images

modified Apr. 28, 2014