A. Elspeth would do anything for her cat.(You do, of course have to bring in your knowledge of the real world to know that her cat and Buddy refer to the same animal).
B. Elspeth would do anything for Buddy.
A. Elspeth would do anything for her cat Buddy. (restrictive; implies that E. has more than one cat)Note that the diagrams for each version are the same.
B. Elspeth would do anything for her cat, Buddy. (non-restrictive; we donšt know how many cats E. has)
This sentence has essentially the same meaning as: That the earth is a planet is a fact.
Again, the meaning is essentially the same as: That you hate spinach is a shame.
Once again, this is another way of saying: For you to say such an unkind thing is shocking.
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