But cat is not a word that necessarily takes an adjective. Consider:
The cat sat on the mat.
It's a well formed sentence. We don't have any information about whether it's advisable to pat this cat, but that's a practical concern, not a grammatical one.
Similarly we can say:
The adverbials in sentences 1-4. give you information about how Harold drove and might lead you to different conclusions about whether you'd like to be Harold's passenger, but the sentence Harold drove. is complete--if bland--without an adverbial modifying the verb.
You might say that these sentences work because seem is tagged in a speaker's internal dictionary, or mental lexicon, as a verb that requires a an adjectival or NP complement:
Some verbs that can function as linking verbs can also be used as transitive or intransitive, but note that their meaning changes:
Harold looked down the hole.
BUT Harold looks good.
So look has at least two possible tags: it's either without complement (intransitive) or (in a different meaning) with subjective complement.
Compare: Harold looked down the hole. This sentence is simply an instance of the intransitive use with an adverbial PP modifying the verb.
A sentence like: Harold is. is possible only in the present tense and only in the marginal meaning "Harold exists." You might, in fact, want to consider it a sort of pseudo pattern VI (intransitive).
The sentence Harold was. isn't a possible sentence in English in the meaning *"Harold existed." Forms of be can, however, occur in all tenses as responses to questions, but in these cases the complement is missing, or implied from the context of the preceding sentence; for example:
Q. Who was at the party?
A. Harold was. [at the party]. (pattern I be + ADV T/P)
Q. Who is the fairest of them all?
A. Cinderella is. [the fairest of them all] (pattern II be + adj)
Q. Who was the team's manager?
A. Harold was. [the team's manager]. (Pattern III be + NP)
Again, adore can be thought of as tagged in the speaker's mental dictionary as requiring a direct object:
A verb like elect would be marked as either:
1. requiring a D.O.
2. requiring a D.O. and an objective complement:
Here, the adjective eager is tagged as possibly, but not obligatorily, taking an infinitive as complement:
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