The king rode to London. --> Rode the king to London?
She has eaten. --> Has she eaten?
In contemporary English, if the base sentence already has an auxiliary, as in the second sentence, therešs nothing more to do.
Note that the result of this step is similar to the Early Modern sentences with non-emphatic do.
In fact, you can form a particular kind of emphatic question from this sentence simply by changing its intonation:
The WH-word stands for missing information--whatever the citizens were saying ("Long live the king!" "Off with the kingšs head!" "Letšs get the king to declare this a national holiday!" ... etc.)
Step two: add stand-in do if the base sentence does not already have an auxiliary, and the tense automatically jumps onto the auxiliary.
Note that did and the citizens change place, because the citizens is the subject of the base sentence. (The citizens said what)
When the WH-word is subject of the sentence, it doesn't move, and there is no stand-in do or subject-verb inversion. Compare: Who gave you the present? from the base sentence Who gave you the present. with who as subject.
You saw which movie. --> Which movie did you see?
She wore what dress. --> What dress did she wear?
She bought which dress on sale.--> Which dress that she bought on sale did she wear?
She gave the book to who(m).
She gave the book to who(m). -->
She gave the book to who(m) -->
Option 1 is the more formal, and generally speakers or writers who chose it keep the objective case marking on the WH-word whom, which is why I marked to who ... etc. with a question mark.
Option 2, though perfectly grammatical, is often stigmatized as "ending a sentence with a preposition." It's been an option for English speakers for hundreds of years, however, and the "Don't end a sentence with a preposition" injunction is a good example of a usage rule imposed artificially on formal English. In such sentences, it sounds more natural--especially in colloquial speech--to drop the objective case marking and use who, but sentences with whom don't sound completely unnatural.
Note that both versions of this question share the same diagram:
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