I. Names to Remember
Poseidon (Neptune), Hephaestus (Vulcan), Ares (Mars)
Corinth, Lemnos, Mt. Etna, Thrace
Graces, Fates, Triton
II. Lecture Outline
- Daughters of Zeus Who Come in Threes
- The Three Graces
- Attendants of Aphrodite; Mother = Eurynome
- Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos (you don't need to remember these names)
- One rolls out the thread of a life, one measures, and one cuts
- Mother = Themis (Order)
- Lord of the Sea and Ocean; Earthquakes
- Trident; Horses; chariot of sea monsters
- Married to Amphitrite, a Nereid
- Child: Triton = Merman; blows conch shell
- Sea Gods: Proteus
- Old wise man of the sea; shape-shifter; prophet
- Two Birth Stories
- Born of Hera alone in response to Athena
- Child of Hera and Zeus
- Vulcan = Volcanoes imagined as workshops (Mt. Etna, Sicily; Lemnos)
- Craftsman and Smith of the Gods (metalworking)
- Shield of Achilles
- The destructive, violent, beserker side of battle = chaos
- Contrasted to Athena, the god of rational war, strategy, military
- Bearded or clean-shaven
- The Sun tells Hephaestus of the affair
- Lovers trapped by Hephaestus with a golden net
- Gods laugh and Poseidon vouches for Ares; lovers are released
Zeus + Metis
Zeus + Hera
Zeus + Leto
Zeus + Maia
Zeus + Mnemosyne
Zeus + Eurynome
Zeus + Themis
Apollo and Artemis
- Incuse silver stater, 530-510 BC, from Poseidonia. Obverse: nude Poseidon with chlamys and trident. Soprintendenza Archeologica, Naples.
- Poseidon. Mosaic floor from the Baths of Neptune, Ostia, c. 133 CE.
- Neptune and a Dolphin. Bernini.
- Neptune and Amphitrite. Constantinian mosaic pavement from North Africa.
- Triton with dolphins. Detail of North Ionic neck amphora, c. 530 BCE. Ashby Castle, Northampton Collection.
AresAres and Aphrodite
- Ares and Aphrodite.
- Mars Disarmed by Venus and the Three Graces. Jacques-Louis David, 1822-24. Brussels.
- Venus, Mars and Cupid. Guercino, 1633. Pinacoteca Estense, Modena
- Venus and Mars. Sandro Botticelli, 1485. National Gallery, London.
- Venus, Vulcan, and Mars. Jacopo Robusti Tintoretto, c. 1550. Pinakothek, Munich.
- Venus and Mars in Vulcan's Net. Martin Van Heemskerk, 1536.
- The Forge of Vulcan. Diego Velåazquez, 1630. Museo del Prado, Madrid.