03. THE GREEK AND ROMAN GODS

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See also H&P 184-85.

GREEK NAME

epithets and other names

(Roman Name)

functions

attributes

ZEUS
(Jupiter)

thunderer, lord of gods and men, counselor, father, cloud-gatherer, aegis-bearing
king of gods, weather god
thunderbolt, bearded

HERA
(Juno)

ox-eyed, white-armed
wife of Zeus; goddess of marriage, childbirth
shown lifting veil from her face

POSEIDON
(Neptune)

earth-shaker, horsey
god of the sea, earthquakes
trident, bearded

DEMETER
(Ceres)

[no standard epithets]
goddess of agriculture
sheaf of grain

APOLLO
(Apollo)

far-darter, Pythian, Delian, Cynthius, Phoebus
god of the sun, archery, music, prophecy, medicine
bow and arrow, beardless

ARTEMIS
(Diana)

virgin huntress, Delian, Cynthia
goddess of the moon, hunting, wildlife
bow and arrow, short dress

ARES
(Mars)

grim, warlike
god of war; some agricultural functions in Rome
no standard attributes, beardless

APHRODITE
(Venus)

Cyprian, golden, laughter-loving
goddess of love
more jewelry than other goddesses

HERMES
(Mercury)

Argus-slayer, guide, conductor of souls
god of travelers, thieves; messenger of the gods; guide of souls to Hades
winged cap and sandals, caduceus (staff with snakes twined round )

ATHENA / ATHENE
(Minerva)

grey-eyed, owl-eyed, Pallas, Parthenos
goddess of good sense; warlike; protector of heroes
armor, aegis

HEPHAISTOS / HEPHAESTUS
(Vulcan)

lame, club-foot
blacksmith god; god of craftsmen; in Rome; connected with volcanoes
riding donkey-back; blacksmith tools

HADES
(Pluto)

[no standard epithets]
god of the dead, king of the underworld
bearded

DIONYSOS / DIONYSUS
(Bacchus)

Bacchus, Bromios
god of wine, drama, the irrational
thyrsus (staff topped with ivy-leaves), ivy wreath, wine cup


Last updated: 8/25/07

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