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Lecture 12 Images
Updated 3/2/2011

Lecture 12: Caesar's heir: Augustus

I. Caesar's successor - Stage I: A Bloody Civil War

Octavian (born 63 B.C.), divi filius
Second Triumvirate, 43 B.C. (Mark Antony, Octavian, Lepidus)
Philippi (42 B.C.); against Sextus Pompey (Naulochos, 36 B.C.)
and Antony and Cleopatra (Actium, 31 B.C.); Maecenas, Agrippa, Livia

II.  Stage II:  Augustus and the restoration of the res publica  

            a.  return to constitutional and legal government in 27 B.C.; Augustus (cf. aug-,
                        Augur); his alternatives
            b.  deemphasis of authoritarianism: auctoritas, princeps, libertas  (se-curitas), pater
; the jaundice of our (senatorial) sources (Tacitus, 2nd half of 1st cent. A.D.)

            c. transforming and transactional leadership  (cf. James MacGregor Burns,
                      Transforming Leadership, 2004)

            d. no ideology, but ideals and values: compulsory marriage laws;
                       laws against legacy hunting and adultery; Lucretia again

            e. the pax Augusta: parta victoriis pax ("peace is born from victories")
            foreign policy and provinces; the Parthians

            f.  recasting the Golden Age: unceasing effort, not paradise

III. Augustan art and architecture - a new synthesis

a. simplicity of form; moral dimension (vs. previous architectural excesses, e.g., Sulla's Temple of Fortuna at Praeneste)

b. complexity of associations and references; "images to reflect on"

c. buildings: Temple of Divus Julius; Forum of Augustus (Temple of Mars the Avenger); Pont du Gard (aqueduct);
Maison Carrée (Temple in Nimes, France); Circus Maximus

To be continued Tuesday.

For next time, begin reading Vergil's Aeneid and bring the texts to class. Consult the summary on the web.

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