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Lecture 4 Images
Updated 9/7/2015

Lecture 4: Roman Values; the Roman Expansion in Italy

I. Roman virtues: cf. Livy (in Course Packet, pp. 28-30): Horatius, Mucius, Cloelia, Manlius

1.virtus (vir) - military and civil
2. pietas; NOT "piety" but connoting duty, respect, responsibility, obligation; opposite: me-ism
3. industria
4. gravitas
5. constantia
6. severitas
II. The presumed Roman traditionalist: Cato the Elder (234-149 B. C.); Course Packet, pp. 59-79

Full name: Marcus Porcius Cato
concentrate on: what makes Cato an exemplar of Roman virtues and values (and their downsides);
see prompts in Canvas; open class discussion

A. early life; Fabius Maximus
B. Cato the Censor (184-179 B.C.); sumptuary legislation
C. Cato's flexibility; basilica and other episodes (rescue in Spain; 2nd marriage)
III. The Roman Expansion in Italy

A. Various factors, e.g., no primogeniture; bellum pium et iustum; military tactics:
phalanx (clip from Alexander, 2004) vs. maniple

B. main stages of conquest: Latin League (dissolved in 338 B.C.); 295 B.C.: battle at Sentinum (northern Italy)
against Etruscans and Gauls; 281-272 B.C.: war against Pyrrhus (Pyrrhic victory); images 15-18

C. governing the conquered: divide and rule; ius commercii, ius conubii