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Updated1/29/2011


Lecture 5: Rome, Italy, and Carthage



I. The Roman Expansion in Italy

Various factors, e.g., no primogeniture; bellum pium et iustum; military tactics:
phalanx vs. maniple (cf. Lect. 4)

Main stages:

1. external: divide and rule; Latin League (dissolved in 338 B.C.); 295 B.C.: battle at Sentinum (northern Italy)
against Etruscans and Gauls; 281-272 B.C.: war against Pyrrhus (Pyrrhic victory); ius commercii, ius conubii
Lect. 4 images 15-18

2. internal: civil rights; patricians vs. plebeians 494 B.C.: secession; 450 B.C.: Laws of the 12 Tables;
tribunes of the people and their veto power;
367 B.C.: plebeian consul; 300 B.C.: plebeian augurs; 287 B.C.: Lex Hortensia

II. The First Punic War (264-241 B.C.): Sicily (images 1-2)

A. Origins:
1. In 265 B.C., a horde of Italian mercenaries, the Mamertines, take over the Sicilian city of Messina
2. The Messinians appeal to Syracuse; in 265 B.C., a Syracusan expedition almost dislodges the Mamertines
3. Thereupon, the Mamertines appeal to Carthage; a Carthaginian garrison is established in Messina
4. Thereupon, the Mamertines, presumably to get rid of the Carthaginians,
send an embassy to Rome appealing for help and alliances
B. The course of the war: Hamilcar Barca; Regulus; sea engagements and rostra

III. What if Carthage had won: Carthaginian civilization; Phoenicians

A. political system; merchants (exploration: Hanno) vs. war party (Barcids); images 3-4
B. Religion: Baal; Tanit; tophets (burial grounds); apotropaic masks; human sacrifices
images 5-17

IV. The Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.)

Hannibal; Saguntum; Alps and elephants; Fabius; Cannae (216 B.C.), History Channel version; Scipio and Zama (202 B.C.):
(cf. Patton, 1970); images 18-24

V. Long-term consequences: new trends vs. old traditions, e.g. in religion

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galinsky@mail.utexas.edu
1/29/MMXI