CC 302
Lecture 9 Images
Updated 9/28/2015

Lecture 9. The late Republic: from the Gracchi to Caesar

Updated version on Canvas

I. The Gracchi and their significance (cf. Kamm 50-53)

II. The tangle of problems

a. agrarian
b. social; city mob
c. military
d. economic: latifundia; grain imports; slave labor and revolts

III. Tiberius Gracchus (tribune in 133 B.C.)

a. tribunate
b. land law; revival of Sextian Licinian Law of 367 B.C.:
c. 300 acres per owner, 150 per son; Octavius; Attalus of Pergamum; mos maiorum

IV. Gaius Gracchus (tribune in 123 and 122 B.C.)

a. personality; RFK and JFK
b. program
1. economic and social
2. political alliances; grain law; equestrians
3. citizenship for the Italian allies (Social War 91-88 B.C.)

V. The Place of the Gracchi in Roman History

a. idealism; Profiles in Courage
b. turning back the clock to the 4th century
c. immaturity about traditions, but what are the alternatives?
d. mob rule for an empire
e. bread, circuses, the entitlement mentality, and public morale

7th inning stretch: Clip from Spartacus (1960) or the Pepsi version

VI. Caesar's foil: Pompey the Great (106-48 B.C.); the Alexander model

a. Personality and early career; Sulla; Spartacus (73-71 B.C.)
b. consul in 70 B.C. with Crassus; war against King Mithridates of Pontus;
c. mideastern settlement 62 B.C.

Please read Suetonius' Julius Caesar and Shakespeare's JC (in Course Packet) and bring those texts to class on Thursday.

Tests will be returned Thursday. Please make a note pick them up then; after that, they'll be available only during my office hours.
If they sit there for longer than a week, I'll charge them rent: one point off for each day :-(

Suitable quote for the Gracchi:

"He well knows what snares are spread about his path, from personal animosity . . . and possibly from popular delusion. But he has put to hazard his ease, his security, his interest, his power, even his popularity . . . He is traduced and abused for his supposed motives. He will remember that obloquy is a necessary ingredient in the composition of all glory; he will remember that calumny and abuse are essential parts of triumph . . . He may live long; he may do much. But here is the summit. He can never exceed what he does this day."

(Edmund Burke's eulogy of Charles James Fox in his attack on the tyranny of the East India Company - House of Commons, December 1, 1782; cited from JFK's Profiles in Courage)

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