PEDRO ARMILLAS'  Mesoamerica


Armillas' Mesoamerica is smaller than Kirchhoff's.  His criteria facilitates explanation of

Peruvian-Mesoamerican similarities (food triumvirate, emphasis on blood sacrifice and heart excision, metallurgy)


"Mesoamerica saw the development of a 'high civilization'.  The criteria for

civilization are the boundaries of Mesoamerica"


1.  Surplus - level of agricultural production above that of simple subsistence.


2.  Social mechanism enabling Storage of Surplus


3.  Full Time specialists in Gov, Religion, trade, war, crafts


4  Some form of currency  (cacao beans)


5.  External trade (outside the group)


6.  A form of Theistic religion (belief in god or gods).


7.  A series of Formal Laws


8.  Numerical Systems  - a way of accounting          

A. Astronomy

            B. Calendar  (they had a monopoly on this "scientific" knowledge


9.  Urban Centers (cities) in which archaeologists will find:

     a) Monumental Architecture

     b) More or less regular layout of buildings and streets

     c) Concentration of Specialists in the Cities

     d) water system and/or drainage and/or pavements and/or rubbish disposal

     e) religious and/or commercial and/or industrial centers in City


10.  Warfare - which concentrated surplus and built up empire.


11.  Differential Power Concentration - government


12.  Classes - upper class having control of all or part of production

          (this because agriculture depends on 3 things:

          1) land

          2) water

          3) labor force