PEDRO ARMILLAS'  Mesoamerica

 

Armillas' Mesoamerica is smaller than Kirchhoff's.  His criteria facilitates explanation of

Peruvian-Mesoamerican similarities (food triumvirate, emphasis on blood sacrifice and heart excision, metallurgy)

 

"Mesoamerica saw the development of a 'high civilization'.  The criteria for

civilization are the boundaries of Mesoamerica"

 

1.  Surplus - level of agricultural production above that of simple subsistence.

 

2.  Social mechanism enabling Storage of Surplus

 

3.  Full Time specialists in Gov, Religion, trade, war, crafts

 

4  Some form of currency  (cacao beans)

 

5.  External trade (outside the group)

 

6.  A form of Theistic religion (belief in god or gods).

 

7.  A series of Formal Laws

 

8.  Numerical Systems  - a way of accounting          

A. Astronomy

            B. Calendar  (they had a monopoly on this "scientific" knowledge

 

9.  Urban Centers (cities) in which archaeologists will find:

     a) Monumental Architecture

     b) More or less regular layout of buildings and streets

     c) Concentration of Specialists in the Cities

     d) water system and/or drainage and/or pavements and/or rubbish disposal

     e) religious and/or commercial and/or industrial centers in City

 

10.  Warfare - which concentrated surplus and built up empire.

 

11.  Differential Power Concentration - government

 

12.  Classes - upper class having control of all or part of production

          (this because agriculture depends on 3 things:

          1) land

          2) water

          3) labor force