SAMPLE FINAL EXAM  

NAME__________________

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE  (1 point each)   place letter answer to the left of the number, please.

(some of these questions will find their way into the final exam)

 

1.  The Nacirema referred to by Horace Miner live in  a)  Brazil   b)  Africa  c)  Asia   d)  Canada   e)  Mesoamerica   f)  North America   g)  South America   h)  Panama

 

2.  Gary Nabhan asserts that a particular kind of oil or fat ingested at meals produces a) the same kind of response among different ethnic populations   b)  different responses among different ethnic populations  c) an array of postprandial practices, including multiple alleles

 

3.   In Crete snails are gathered and then fed flour and rosemary: a) to take the bitterness out of them   b) to take some of the saltiness from them   c)  to provide resistance to malaria   d)  to fatten them up

 

4. According to Nabhan, the number one cause of death in the western world is  a) terrorism   b)  cancer   c) heart disease   d)  automobile accidents   e)  malaria   f) old age    g) stupidity

 

5.   The practice of eating clay earth (kaolinite) is apparently related to   a) neutralizing excess acid   b)  absorbing poisons  c)  providing missing minerals   d)  a & b    e)  a, b & c   f) a & c

 

6   While chimpanzees eat other animals on occasions, monkeys never eat chimpanzees 

a) true  b) false

 

7.  "Tasters" have far fewer fungiform papillae on their tongues than do "non-tasters."   a) false   b) true

 

8.  Ongoing McDonaldization of the world has proceeded enthusiastically with no resistance because of the near universal appeal of its tasty food.     a) true  b) false

 

9.  Gary Nabhan suggests that:  a) we have all been programmed genetically by people from other worlds      b) genetic modification has produced many foods that have advantages over nature's own    c)  we are predisposed genetically as well as culturally to favor the flavor of some foods over others  d) Our cultures are what create our likes and dislikes in food, not our genes.

 

10.  Sweetbreads is a dish usually made of:  a)  a young animal's thymus gland   b) skillet fried flour and honey   c)  a cow's tongue    d) calf's liver    e)  turkey stuffing with dollops of sugar encrusted fat.   

 

11  The number one exporter of horsemeat according to Harris is   a) Argentina   b) France   c) the USA    d) China

 

 

12.  The Fore of Papua, New Guinea used to suffer from a disease called Kuru, through the practice of cannibalism which spread:   a) deadly bacteria   b) deadly muons   c) wasting away mesons   d) deadly prions

 

13.  Maize is more efficient than most plants because it:    a) has a double set of chromosomes where most plants have a single set   b) recruits four carbon atoms while most plants recruit only three   c) has leaves that are twice as long as most plant leaves   d) doesn't need the amino acid lysine while most plants do.

 

14.  Macaws regularly eat poisonous fruit and nuts.    a) true   b) false

 

15  According to Nabhan, whereas women who cannot stand bitter greens and chiles may be exposed to the risk of some cancers, they are clearly not as much at risk for heart disease or alcoholism.   a) true   b) false

 

16.  What is the omnivore's dilemma according to Pollan    a) deciding when to eat   b) deciding between eating and being eaten   c) deciding what to eat   d) living in a land of plenty while others starve   e)  deciding whether to become a vegetarian or a meat eater.

 

17.  Some animals eat bamboo almost exclusively despite its high silica content, including the

a) bamboo rabbit   b)  panda   c)  bamboo lemur   d)   hyrax    e)  bamboo muskrat   f)  d & e  

g)  b & c

 

18.  David Attenborough in the film "Finding Food" makes an implicit classification that distinguishes the following categories of foods from one another:    leaves, nectar, fruit, nuts and seeds, roots       a) true   b)  false   

 

19.  .   Whereas Gary Nabhan calls himself a  "supertaster"  he once dated a woman who was a "nontaster" .   a)  true     b)  false   

 

20.  .   In Japan, if you eat an improperly prepared fugu fish, you won't die, but you can get very sick.    a)  true   b)  false

 

21.  Harris says that according to law a ground meat patty with mostly beef and a smidgen of pork can be called   a) a burger   b) a patty  c)  a sausage  d) a hamburger   e) a, b, c, and d   f)  a, b, and c  

 

22.  According to Harris, beef is used in the US more than pork due to the direct and indirect influence of all-beef fast-food hamburgers.    a)  true  b)  false

 

23.   According to Harris, xerophthalmia (literally "drying of the eye")  results from a deficiency of Vitamin A.   a)  true    b)   false

 

24.  Who said "In market economies such as the US, good to eat may mean good to sell, regardless of the nutritional consequences"?   a)  Gary Nabhan   b)  Michael Pollan  c) Foster and Cordell  d) Marvin Harris

 

25.  Harris says that energetically speaking, each calorie of chicken breast costs:   a)  almost half a calorie of fossil fuel   b)  six calories of fossil fuel   c)  700 calories of fossil fuel   d)  7,000,000 calories of fossil fuel

 

26.   Harris correlates lactose tolerance with  a) vitamin C     b) skin color   c)  age of puberty  d)  a rise in the price of milk

 

27.  Harris maintains that the Chinese and other Asians did not spurn milk because they were lactose intolerant;  they are lactose intolerant because they spurned milk.   a)  true   b)  false

 

28.  Harris believes that the reason we don't eat insects isn't  because they are dirty and loathsome, suggesting rather that we see them as dirty and loathsome because we don't eat them.   a)  true  b)  false.

 

29.   Harris suggests that we don't eat our pets because   a)  they don't taste good   b) don't have much nutritional value   c) they are proxy humans   d) they cost too much to eat  e) they are inefficient food sources compared with cows, pigs, and chickens.

 

30.  Harris sees warfare cannibalism as a normal by-product of pre-state warfare.    a) true   b) false

 

31.  Marvin Harris says that the real conundrum is why we, who live in a society that is constantly perfecting the art of mass-producing human bodies on the battlefield, find humans good to kill but bad to eat.    a)   true   b)  false  

 

32.  Harris, in trying to explain an aversion of malnourished children to dark green, leafy vegetables, says it represents an attempt to satisfy the malnourished child's most urgent calorie-protein needs first.   a) true   b)  false

 

33.  In Minneapolis there is a tradition of Policemen and Firemen competing with one another in the production of:   a) chili   b) booya   c)  boulliabaise   d) chumuka    e) barbecued chicken

 

34.  An old fashioned tamalada is more likely to be found in  a) Casper, WY   b) Honolulu HI  c) San Benito, TX   d)  Snydersburg, TN

 

35.  One segment of the series on the Meaning of Food demonstrated that comfort and community can even be gotten from  a) a lonely lighthouse meal in the boondocks   b) dining at a friendly corner restaurant in the city  c) tasty snack while on safari in Senegal   d) male bonding while eating MREs together after a shootout with insurgents.

 

36.  Goals of Genetic engineering include:  a) improved resistance of plants to pests, diseases, and harsh weather   b) improved resistance of plants to herbicides   c) improved nutrient content of plants   d)  changed fruiting times of some plants    e) improved size and appearance of fruits.   F) a-e     g)  a and c

 

37.  About pollution it could fairly be said that:   a) pollution rules are particularly strong about food  b) the more intimate people habitually are, the less they pollute one another   c) physical contact is an essential part of pollution   d)  a, b, and c

 

38.  Potential hazards of Genetically Engineered foods are:    a) food allergies   b)  antibiotic resistance   c.  poisoning by pesticides   d)  damage to the environment (including beneficial insects and soil fertility)  e.   creation of "superweeds"  and "superpests"  f.  creation of new viruses and pathogens    g)  a-f    h)  a-c

 

39.  Food socialization is strongly gendered.   One study found that for girls food is a primarily a symbol of friendship, but for boys food is mostly a means to express dominance and competition.  a) true  b) false

 

40.  Women between 25 and 44 consume:   a)  about half of all chocolate produced  b)  about two thirds of all chocolate produced.   c)  less than a third of all chocolate produced  

 

41.  Robin Fox makes the claim that food and sex are physically linked in the brain's limbic system, which controls emotional activity generally:  thus "good food = good sex," suggesting an evolutionary connection to provisioning.    a) true   b)  false  

 

42.  the "plate of death"  as mentioned in class, refers to:   a) a meat dish   b) cooked spinach  

c) a vegan dish    d)  the fugu fish

 

43.  a tamal was suggested in a class lecture to symbolically represent:   a)  a precurser to the chimichanga   b)  a world tree    c)  a human body   d)  a hedge against starvation

 

44.   The garlic capital of the United States is in  a) Gilmore, TX   b) Gilley, MT   c) Gilroy, CA   d) Gilbert, AZ

 

45.  Chili Peppers were domesticated in   a) China   b) Africa   c)  Australia   d)  Southeast Asia  e) Mesoamerica

 

46.  Large quantities of horsemeat have not been eaten in France since 1450.    a) True   b) False   c) More or less correct  

 

47.  The human body needs argonium for healthy development.    a)  yes    b)  no    c) only children under 7 need argonium.

 

48.  As omnivores, humans can readily digest the cellulose found in most plant leaves.   a)  true   b)  false   c) the second part is true, but humans are not omnivores.  

 

49.  Some evidence suggests that humans spent thousands of years or more  in or near the ocean after coming down from the trees and before moving to savannah life.   This evidence includes a) liver capable of synthesizing dopamines   b) lungs capable of staying underwater for up to 3 minutes  c) arms that have vestigial gillflaps  d) fingernails adapted for opening shellfish   e) eyelids that are cover the whole eyeball  f)  b & e 

 

50.  When the lecturer spoke of the importance of maize in Mesoamerica, he suggested that images of early Mesoamericans show rulers wearing food on their   a)  feet   b) head   c) wrists  d) shoulders

 

51.  In the Trobriand Islands a man is responsible for supplying yams to the family of his   a) mother   b) spouse  c) sister   d) brother   e)  a and d   

 

52.  The Yanomamó of Venezuela alternate bites of meat with bites of plantains, which accords well with the nutritional concept of:  a) "carbohydrate sharing" diets  b)  "protein sparing" diets   c) "fat dependency" diets   d) "pay as you go" diets

 

53.  Chimpanzees are known on occasion to stalk and kill and eat    a) condors   b) monkeys  c) deer   d) guinea pigs   e) sloths

 

 

54.  Vitamins A, D, E, and K are the  a) "heavy" vitamins   b)  "fat soluble" vitamins  c) "protein rich" vitamins   d) "hairy" vitamins.  

 

55.  Alcohol has been linked definitively to  a) morphogenic syntosis  b) getting drunk   c) AIDS    d)  Infectious hepatitis    e) bicycle riding   f)  b and d  

 

56.  "Rabbit starvation" according to Harris, is a symptom of :   a)  not having enough rabbits to eat   b) eating too many lean rabbits  c) rabbits not getting enough grass to eat   d)  starvation by drinking too much alcohol.

 

57.  Cannibals never eat the ones they love.  a)   true   b)  false  

 

58.  The pod in the pickup truck that convicted a murderer in Phoenix was from the  a) mesquite  b) palo verde  c) sweet pea  d) string bean

 

59.  There is no known way to verify the presence of chocolate or cacao on artifacts that are over 100 years old.   a)  true  b)  false  c)  almost true   d) depends on what you mean by "old"

 

60.  Expeditions from Europe were sent to seek cloves in part because it was believed this spice was:  a) able to turn metal into gold  b)  an antidote for the plague in Europe  c) used in French cooking   d) better than garlic

 

61.  The main theme of the film “The Hunting Ape” is:  a) to show the distinction between diet and cuisine   b) to prove that human ancestors were cannibals  c)  to illustrate that a change in diet led to a change in social behavior  d) to argue that an aquatic ape did exist.

 

62.  Offering food is usually a sign of   a) guilt   b) bravery   c)  friendship   d)  flattery

 

63.  Rejecting offered food is usually a sign of    a) anxiety  b)  antagonism   c)   hunger   d) freedom

 

64.  Who contributes more to the family's caloric intake in most societies?   a)  men  b)  women   c)  children  

 

65.  Maize has most of the 9 (or 10) essential amino acids that the body needs to synthesize proteins, and the two that are lacking can be found in abundance in   a)  collard greens  b) mushrooms   c)  beans    d)  squash

 

66.  Who said "In market economies such as the US, good to eat may mean good to sell, regardless of the nutritional consequences."   a)  Marvin Harris   b)  Eric Schlosser   c)  Mary Weismantel   d)  Emeril

 

67.  In 17th century England "mummy"  was taken as a medicine.   It was composed of    a)  dried human flesh, supposedly from Egyptian mummies  b)  olives in alcohol      c)   prune juice with apricot pits   d)  chicken soup

 

68.  A dried clump of feces on a hearth in the American Southwest yielded evidence of    a)  early maize use   b)  cannibalism   c)  practical joking among Native Americans    d)  protein isolation   e) steroid fixation

 

69.  Buddhism and Hinduism struggled for possession of the stomachs and minds of the Indian people, according to Harris, and the one that eventually won was  a) Hinduism    b)  Buddhism   .

 

70.  In India, according to Harris, one reason for the ban on their use for food, is that cattle are used for providing milk as well as used for   a) racing competitions   b) riding    c)  meat for the deities   d) plowing    e)  ritual anointing   f) warning of intruders    g)  worship  

 

71.   .  In Mexico most foods are categorized in such a way that balancing the one with the other is seen as important to health.   The usual categories are :  a) strong and weak   b) hot and cold   c) wet and dry   d) raw and cooked   e) green and ripe   f) fried and baked

 

72.  Trinidadians often use the West Indian dish "callaloo" as a metaphor for the nation, but one political activist wrote a book suggesting a better metaphor would be:   a) melting pot   b)  stew   c)  tossed salad   d)  lasagne   e)  bacon omelet

                       

73.  Actually food practices reveal relatively little about how people in a society actually define themselves when you think about it.   a) True    b) false 

 

74.  The "stinking rose"  is:  a) chili pepper    b)  limburger cheese   c)  garlic   d)  a rafflesia flower   e)  a restaurant in California    f)  c & e     g) b & e    h)  a chrysanthemum

 

75.  What kind of figure of speech is it when one says that someone else is a nut. ­­­ a) metaphor  b) synecdoche  c)  metonym   d)  hiatus

 

76.  Most food taboos  revolve around    a)   plant foods   b)  animal foods  c)  hot foods    d)  cold foods 

 

77.  The Czech kolache tradition is kept alive in Texas in part through a)  experimenting with making jumping kolaches   b)  making of kolaches in the Texas prison system    c)  baking contests in which children participate   d)  b and c

 

78.  The kalo plant  (taro) of Hawaii  from which poi is made:   a)  lives in the drier areas of Hawaii   b)  must be imported from western Samoa   c)  needs lots of water   d) none of the above

 

79.  Geechee people (also known as Gullahs) come from the Sea Islands and feel a deep sense of identification with eating  a) whales  b)  people   c)  rice   d)  potatoes   e)  corn 

 

80.  The Makah people of the Northwest coast region have hunted the  a) caribou  almost to extinction   b) the gray whale almost to extinction   c) pesky opossum for years    d) none of the above

 

81.  For his (or her)  "last meal" a condemned prisoner often chooses food reminding him (or her) of childhood meals.      a) true   b)  false

 

82.  What  is most likely being enacted when on the Day of the Dead, Mexicans eat a ritual meal in the cemetery?  a)  respect for the dead   b)  enjoyment of a special day  c) communion with one's departed relatives and with one another   d)  worship of God  

 

83.  Some think internet cookies got their name because regular cookies are:  a) made with butter  b) made by hand    c)   made with flour, which rhymes with flower    d)  often shared   e)  often sold by the pound   f) made with fat, which bloats    g) eaten without thinking about it

 

84.  Harris suggests that insects tend to be part of the diet in places where swarming insects are present and large vertebrates are absent.    a) true   b)  false    

 

85.  Saffron is used in breads in Cornwall, paella in Spain, and bouillabaisse in Marseille.  It is put on the forehead in India.    Where does saffron come from.     a) bulbs from an iris   b) stigmas from a crocus   c) fruits from a Prunus   d)  powdered nuts from a Methysticum tree

 

86.  Commodity fetishism is the process of turning luxury treats into staples.   This is a)  done by creating a demand for such foods  b) a process intrinsic to the needs of capitalism  c) rarely found in the average sized city   d) a and b

 

87.  Marvin Harris disputes the claim of the "experts" that food habits are the parts of culture that change most slowly, and he gives an example of rapid change in food habits.   a) true  b) false

 

88.  The five main types of maize include   a)   farmer,  flint,  elemental , sweet, grover,   

b)   pop,  carpal,  flour, crested,  yellow    c)  flint, dent,   flour,   sweet, pop     d)  white, variegated,  yellow,  crested, dent    e)  sweet, pop,  dent,  yellow,  flour   

89.  Navajo medicine men classify plants into four main groups:   a)  trees, grass, vines, herbs    b) foods, medicines, plants of no currently known benefits,  poisons  c)  flowers, weeds, medicines, foods   d) bitter, sour, sweet, salty    e) beneficial, harmful, neutral, unknown

 

90.  A Pima and Papago genetic predisposition for diabetes used to be compensated for through diet, an important part of which was  a) albuminoids from sagebrush   b) flavinoids from roasted yucca leaves    c) antioxidants from desert mosses   d) mucilage and pectin from prickly pear cactus  

 

91.   Nabhan claims that Syndrome X can be effectively combated by cuisines that are remarkably similar to "fast foods" .     a)  true   b)  false    c) true only if the fast foods are eaten in moderation.

 

92   This man, who raises several kinds animals, calls himself a grass farmer:   a)  George Naylor

b) Michael Pollan   c)  Joel Salatin   d)  Gary Nabhan   e)  Marvin Harris   f)  Eddie Gourmet

 

93  Native Hawai'ians are changing their diets in positive ways that include incorporating more

a) pineapple    b) lean beef   c) kalo    d)  wheat germ  e) garuda     

 

94.   Sagebrush from the American southwest has a class of lactones that kill nematodes, repel insects, inhibit mold growth, lessen the probability of addiction to nicotine, and can flavor soups.  This class is called  a) albumins   b)  lactisones  c) coumarins   d) endorphins   e) homocystines

 

95.  Folic acid is abundant in  a) calves brains  b) lean steak  c)  sorghum   d) millet  

e) rice   f)  leafy greens    g)  whale blubber

 

96.   Carbohydrates include   a) fatty acids, sugars, amino acids   b)  amygdalite, protein, starches 

c) cellulose, starches, sugars   d)  ionic compendiums, amino-phosphates, sugars   e) lecithin, breads, cookies.

 

97.  By law, GE seeds produce plants that cannot be labeled "organic".   a) true   b) false 

 

98.  The Diggers of 17th century England:  a) were Australian immigrants who refused to buy any lettuce because it wasn't considered wholesome   b) were historians who felt that food practices should be studied for the light they shed on history   c) were a group that grew food on seized land in order to give it away to the poor   d) refused to eat anything but roots and foods from the ground (like carrots, turnips, and potatoes).

 

99.   N-P-K  are letters that in Pollan's book correspond to  a) No Production, just Konsumption  

b)  Nettles,  Peas,  Kelp   c) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium    d)  No Predatory Knowledge  

e) New Product Kine    f) Neat Proper Kitchens

 

100.   A growth regulating chemical widely used in orchards is called   a) Cascadian Orange  

b) Con-Agra    c)  Roundup   d)  Alar    e)  60 minutes  

 

101.  " ___________  is the closest thing in nature to an industrial commodity: storable, portable, fungible…It is a weapon, too."   Michael Pollan said this about  a) grain   b) grass   c) oil    d) fertilizer   e) alcohol  f) carbon

 

102.  As deciduous trees, oak and hickory trees on Joel Salatin's farm    a) increase stress on animals in the summer   b) function to conserve carbon dioxide    c) give oxygen back to the soil in the wintertime   d) reduce stress on animals in the summer    e)  take oxygen from the soil in the wintertime   f) function to dissipate carbon monoxide into the atmosphere

 

103.  Even though Polyface farm's produce, both animal and vegetable, were naturally and organically produced, Pollan found that in a blindfold test he couldn't tell the difference between Polyface chicken and chicken mass produced industrially for McDonalds.   a) true   b) false

 

104.   As a solution of the omnivore's dilemma, omnivores balance  a) neophobia with neophilia   b) practicality with scientific rigor   b) healthy foods with tasty foods   c) white meat with red meat   d) fish with meat    e) protein with amino acids   f) low fat with low carbs

 

105.  Serving fermented soy with rice can  a) cause pellagra   b) render soy beans and rice more nutritious than either would be alone   c) lead to drowsiness in large numbers of people    d) be better for Chinese people than for Japanese people   e) strengthen the diet of the panda.

 

106.  Pollan claims that industrial animal factories, and especially egg producers, are especially rigorous in making sure the animals suffer little pain.    a) true   b) false

 

107.  Michael Pollan ended up  a) not being able to kill a feral pig in California   b) shooting a feral pig to death in California   c) hiring a hunter to shoot a feral pig for him   d) stalking a feral pig with bow and arrow    e) stealing a pig from his neighbor (but leaving its value in currency on his neighbor's dining table).

 

108.   If one were to claim that Michael Pollan had no morels, one would be saying that:  

a) Pollan had not been able to retrieve the fungi that he sought   b)  Pollan enjoyed his hunting experience even if he didn't catch anything   c)  Pollan's fishing expedition had come up empty   d) Pollan claimed to eat organic, but actually preferred Wendys burgers.

 

109.  It has been demonstrated that eating food at school rather than at home leads to improved learning outcomes:   a) true   b) false

 

110.   Which of the following has not been proposed as an energy source for the future:

a) methane   b) pentathane  c) ethanol   d)  methanol  e) biodiesal

 

111.   Politicians voting against federal nutritional guidelines for foods sold in vending machines and elsewhere on school grounds usually cited as their reasons their interest in   a) the free market   b) maintaining  a reasonable profit    c)  allowing local control over local issues   d) keeping things simple    e)  keeping the expense of notification down.

 

112.  Which of the following has not been mentioned as a potential hazard of genetically engineered foods:   a) increased cancer risks   b) genetic pollution  c) genetic bio-invasion  

d) antibiotic resistance   e) damage to food taste    f)   damage to appearance   g) damage to nutrition.

 

113.  In the film The Meaning of Food "cooking with the mouth" referred to: 

a) sharing favorite recipes in a Nazi concentration camp.    b)  talking about starting up a restaurant   c) gossip in a Czech community in Texas    d)  describing foods in a New York delicatessen   e) giving regurgitated food to a younger sibling stricken with comidoplasia  

 

114.   The following is put in water to soften maize kernels, and on tortilla griddles to keep them from stickeing;  this substance frees a chemically unavailable amino acid found in maize:

a) vinegar  b) lime  c) lemon juice   d) huitlacoche   e) garlic   f) potash    g) silica

 

115.  The following appear to be more closely and frequently related to the female gender  

a) pica   b) transmission of cultural codes pertaining to food and eating    c)  anorexica and bulimia   d) eating chocolate   e)  a, c, and d    f) a, b, c, and d    g) c & d   h) b, c & d

 

116.  A single verb in Yanomami means "to eat like a pig" and "to copulate excessively".  This is best explained as a result of  a) homophony   b) linguistic convergence   c) food and sex are closely linked in the limbic system of the brain   d) synonymy   e) the fact that pigs copulate excessively according to Yanomami perceptions.

 

117.  Though science has attempted to find a link between food and courtship among humans, as there is in at least some non-human mammals, it has not succeeded in finding one.    a) true  

b) false

 

118.   in the film The Meaning of Food, feeding a person as they are about to die by electrocution a) a way of making sure they don't vomit after death   b) a means of providing a secure conduit for the electrical impulse through the body   c)  an act of revenge    d) an act of compassion

e) an act of endric loquescence  

 

119.  There are several amino acids essential for protein synthesis that the body must acquire from outside sources.   The number of them is    a)  7   b)   9    c)  11    d)   13    e)  15   f)  17

g) 22   

 

120.   A deficiency of Vitamin C causes:   a) beriberi  b)   pellagra     c)  scurvy    d)  rickets

 

 

ESSAY   Pick one question from each roman numeral heading of the following for a total of three questions (12 points)  (please don't spend more than half an hour on each question, unless you really want to.)  (the exam itself will have a more limited selection from among the following)  

 

I

A.  What does the quotation "The stomach is the center and origin of civilization"  mean?

 

B.  How do you think food practices reflect the social organization of a society?

 

C.   Where do you think food impacts our formal education system (schools) the most? 

 

D.  Present Harris'  argument explaining "meat hunger" in Poland, at least in outline form.   Were you persuaded?  Why or why not?

 

E.   Discuss the importance of maize in some cultures.  Use examples of other foods we discussed or watched in class that are equally important in other cultures and tell what this says about food and culture.

 

F  In class we saw two films back-to-back; one on cannibalism and another on food taboos.  Discuss these two films and show how they are related and what kind of insight they offer anthropologists on human culture and society.

 

II

 

A    Robin Fox says the following:  "Modern anthropology tends to stress the usefulness of food as a marker of social boundaries. As the late Meyer Fortes said, it is not so much that food is “good to eat” as that it is “good to forbid.” Catholics, for example, could find a bond between each other and a mark of difference from Protestants by substituting fish for meat on Fridays."   How do you think Marvin Harris would respond?   

 

B.  Fox says:   Holy Communion derives from an actual meal – the Last Supper – but has much older roots. It goes back to the idea of sharing a meal with God, which some scholars see as the root idea of sacrifice. This develops further into the idea of eating the god to gain his strength and virtue.   What do you think about that?

 

C.   How do the pictures of death row meals that we saw in class relate to identity.   What do they tell us about broader social issues?

 

D.  How might one manipulate ones own identity and that of others by means of food?

 

E.  It has been said that Coca-Cola became a symbol of US national identity during World War II through close ties between the US military and the Coca-Cola company, the messages in Coke's advertising, and the emotional ties that overseas soldiers  felt with Coke (as revealed through their letters).   Why do you suppose the soldiers felt that way about Coca Cola?

 

F.  Food marks boundaries,  and attempts to cross these boundaries may be undertaken by means of food.   Demonstrate that this is so and how it is so, by means of illustrative examples.

 

III

A.  How do you see food as related to power in the realm of food production?

 

B.  Is there a power dimension in the consumption of food?   Explore this dimension if you think there is.

 

C.  What is the extent of the relationship between food and war?  

 

D.  Given the dimensions of time as duration, sequence, order and frequency, what are some of the headings under which you would discuss food as memories of personal and communal history?.   Give specific examples.

 

E.  Outline Harris' argument concerning lactose intolerance and its role in human evolution and nutrition.

 

F.  Give one or more reasons why some animals and some people eat earth (and more specifically clay).   How does this fit into a more general description of pica.