Description

 

ANT 389  Brian Stross

 

MAYAN LANGUAGES

 

(Language, Culture and Folklore)

 

 

This course has no prerequisites apart from graduate standing and an interest in the Mayans.  It does not presuppose a linguistic background, though an introductory linguistics course can always be helpful. The grade in this seminar will be based on 1) A term paper and an oral presentation near the end of the semester on a project topic to be chosen during the first half of the semester.  A team approach can be employed for such projects.  2) class participation 3) performance on homework assignments.   

 

Packet at Longhorn Copies 

 

Recommended books:  Gaspar Pedro González, A Mayan Life. (La Otra Cara)

         Yaxte' Press

 

Week 1  Introduction:  the Mayan language family, its subgroups and

languages, populations and locations.  (In Guatemala, Mexico, and Belize)

Terminology.  Newly discovered languages.  Language maintenance and revival.

             La Violencia.

Maps.  Abbreviations (TZE, TZO, HUA). Outline of features of Mayan languages.

Outline of Linguistic Archaeology / Linguistic Prehistory / Archaeolinguistics. 

Bibliography: discussion of Mayan questions;  Class Projects and potential topics.

Homework - 1) pick a Mayan language and find something interesting about the

way some aspect of the language reflects something about the speakers of the

language.   Be prepared to share this information with the class. 

(*you may substitute a Mixe-Zoquean language for a Mayan one)

2) read Gaspar Pedro González, A Mayan Life.  come prepared to discuss the book.

3) read R. Wilk, "Mayan ethnicity in Belize";  B. Tedlock, "Quiché Maya dream

              interpretation.";

4) (optional) read L. Campbell and T. Kaufman, 1985.  "Mayan linguistics: where are

             we now?" (Ann. Rev. Anthropol. 14:187-98)

5) (optional) read one of the ethnographies listed in section III of the bibliography

        and come prepared to discuss the book and the people you chose.  

Make notes on questions you might have, and jot down other pertinent thoughts

    concerning your reading. (optional) read Gary Bevington, 1995.  Maya for Travelers

    and Students.

6) (optional) Pick one book from section II in the bibliography and read it from

           cover to cover))

5) (optional) If you have no linguistics background at all, then you may find it

              interesting to read an Introductory Linguistics text. 

 

 


Week 2   Ethnographic:   linguistic and cultural diversification of the Mayans.

            Archaeological, linguistic, and folkloric evidence on Mayan origins and diversification.                    Slides.     Lexical-Grammatical analysis by segmentation  (Chontal Mayan).

Homework-  1) read some version of the Popol Vuh (preferably the Tedlock,

or Edmonson, or Recinos version.

2) read: G. Gossen, "To speak with a heated heart," (Bauman and Sherzer (eds.)

 Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking);  M. Howard, "Kekchi religious beliefs

and lore regarding the jungle"  National Studies 3:34-49; (optional) W. Hanks,

"Deixis and common sense in Yucatec Maya";  W. F. Hanks, 1984 "Sanctification,

 structure, and experience in a Yucatec ritual event." (Journal of American Folklore

97(384):131-166..  

3)      Then read D. Tedlock,  1993.  Breath on the Mirror: Mythic Voices & Visions

of the Living Maya. or pick and read one item from section IV of the bibliography

(Folklore), taking notes, and come to class prepared to discuss and compare it with

 the Popol Vuh (you may substitute a Mixe-Zoquean text here,

such as the Sierra Popoluca story of Homshuk).

                        

 

Week 3   Folklore I :  Origins (the world, maize, people, animals, customs), 

            demons and monsters, gods;  Popol Vuh, Chilam Balam, Book of Chan Kin.

Homework -  1)  Look over L. Schele and M. Miller, The Blood of Kings;

Schele and Freidel, A Forest of Kings;

2) (Optional) read the following: M.D. Coe, Breaking the Maya Code;  D. Freidel

and L. Schele, Maya Cosmos;  B. Stross, "The burden of office: a reading",

MEXICON fall 1988.

 

 

Week 4  Maya Hieroglyphs

Homework-   1) read T. Kaufman, "Archaeological and Linguistic Correlations

 in Mayaland" World Archaeology  8:lOl-l8 (913.O5, W893). Some of this article

 may appear too unfamiliar to be read carefully.  At least get an idea of the subjects

 treated in this article.  Then outline or otherwise write down the major ideas and most

 useful facts/statements that you have gained from the article. 

2) Huastec segmentation problem.  Take the corpus of linguistic data and segment it

 as we did with Chontal. 

3) Using Sections V and or VI of the Mayan Bibliography, take any two different

 Mayan languages and compare their sound unit inventories (this can be done easily

 in a few minutes).  You may extend this exercise to other aspects of the sound system

 if you like and have the time

 

 

Week 5  Sound Systems of Mayan Languages:  sound inventories,

             sound contrasts, the phoneme, sound changes.  Tzeltal /r/;  Problems in phonology

             (Tojolabal), morphophonemic (Tzeltal, Tzotzil);  Tzotzil pronouns (Huisteco)

Homework- 1)  Solve two problems in phonology to be distributed in class.  


2) using word lists (e.g. M. Swadesh, "Interrelaciones de las lenguas Mayanses."

 Anales del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.  13:231-267.

 (qF 1219, M 6O5 Z, LAC)), classify the meanings (e.g. hair/cabello) according

 to the degree of variation that their Mayan translations exhibit). or using the wordlist

 from Languages of Guatemala (in the packet), posit by inspection which languages

 are more closely related to each other and which are less. 

 

Week 6  Glottochronology and Subgrouping:  Classifying the Mayan languages,

            dating their separations, following their migrations.

Cholan glottochronology problem. 

Homework-  1) time-depth problem  (Tzeltal-Tojolabal).

 2) read P. Thieme, "The comparative method for reconstruction in linguistics"

3) read C.H. Brown and S. Witkowsky's "Aspects of the phonological history of

Mayan-Zoquean" (IJAL 45:34-47 (l979)) (497.O5, IN 8, PCL); Campbell, Lyle

 and Terrence Kaufman, "On Mesoamerican linguistics." and Witkowski, Stanley and

 Cecil Brown, "Mesoamerican historical linguistics and distant genetic relationship.";

and  Campbell, Lyle and Terrence Kaufman, "Mesoamerican historical linguistics

 and distant genetic relationship: getting it straight." - then write a two or three page

 statement of what you got from the exchange and which side you would take, and why.  

4)      (optional)  read T. Kaufman, "Teco - a new Mayan language."; T. Kaufman,

"Materiales linguisticos para el estudio de las relaciones internas y externas de

la familia de idiomas mayanos.

5)      (optional)  read L. Campbell, 1977 Quichean Linguistic Prehistory, Chs. I – IV

             (PM 4232, C35) and come to class prepared with notes, to discuss it, ask questions

             about it, etc.            

 

Week 7   Comparative Reconstruction of Language and Culture: 

            Proto-Mayan, linguistic and cultural content.  Problems in Comparative Method.

            The Tzeltal a-o problem.

Homework - 1) comparative method problem to be distributed in class.

1)      read and come prepared to discuss J. Robertson's "The origins of the Mamean

 pronominals";  J. Robertson, "A re-reconstruction of the ergative 1sg for common Tzeltal-Tzotzil based on colonial documents.". 

2)      (optional) read one or more of the following:  J. Du Bois, "The Discourse Basis

 of Ergativity" in LANGUAGE; V.R. Bricker, Pronominal Inflection In The Mayan Languages. (Occasional Paper no. 1, M.A.R.I.). (PM 3963, B72, LAC); J.S. Robertson, The Structure of Pronoun Incorporation in the Maya Verbal Complex.;   Brent Berlin, 1963, "A possible paradigmatic structure for Tzeltal pronominals," AL 5:1-5  (4O5 AN 89, PCL);  E. Nida & M. Romero Castillo, l95O, "The pronominal series in Maya (Yucatec),"  IJAL l6:l93-l97. (497.O5, IN 8, PCL).

 

                        

Week 8   Pronouns:  pronominal affixation; ergativity, split ergativity.

Homework - do problem to be distributed in class.


Read, take notes, and come prepared to discuss one of the following:

            K.C. Keller, l955, "The Chontal (Mayan) numeral system,"  IJAL 2l:258-275 (497.O5,

            IN 8, PCL);  B.Berlin & A.K. Romney, l964, "Descriptive semantics of Tzeltal numeral

            classifiers,"  AA 66(2), part 2:79-98 (572.O5, AM 35 NS, PCL; B. Berlin,

            "Categories of eating in Tzeltal and Navajo", IJAL 33:1-6.;   J.S. Robertson, 1986,

            "A Reconstruction and evolutionary statement of the Mayan numerals from twenty to

            four-hundred."  IJAL 52:227-241.

 

 

Week 9   Numbers and Numeral Classifiers:  numbers, classifiers, plurals,

            Highland vs. lowland systems of numeration, borrowings.  "count" glyph; the

            "counting" crocodile;  Tzeltal numerals.

Homework- 1) do numeral problem to be distributed in class.

Read, take notes, and come prepared to discuss:  B. Stross, l973, "Reconstructed

humor in a Tzeltal ritual formula,"  IJAL  39:32-4l (497.O5, IN 8, PCL);

             (optional) read, take notes, and come prepared to discuss: N. A. Hopkins, l977, "Historical and sociocultural aspects of the distribution of linguistic variants in highland Chiapas, Mexico,"  In B. Blount and M. Sanches (eds.)  Sociocultural Dimensions of Language Change. (P4O, S55, PCL)

 

 

Week 10    Internal Reconstruction of Language and Culture:

             methods and inferences; Problems in reconstruction (Tzotzil)

Homework- 1) do internal reconstruction problem distributed in class.  

read and come prepared to discuss: L. Campbell and T. Kaufman "A Linguistic

look at the Olmecs"  AMERICAN ANTIQUITY 41(1):8O-89 (E51, A51, PCL); and  B. Stross, "The Language of Zuyua" AMER. ETHNOL. 1O:15O-164 (GN 1, A53, PCL); and C. Brown and S. Witkowski, "Aspects of the Phonological History of Mayan-Zoquean"  IJAL 45:34-47.      

 (optional) read Ch. V of L. Campbell, l977, Quichean Linguistic Prehistory;

B. Stross, "Oppositional pairing in Mesoamerican divinatory day names" AL 25:273.  (4O5, AN 89, PCL);  T. Kaufman, "Pre-Columbian borrowing involving Huastec."

 

 

Week 11   Diffusion / Borrowing: a. loanwords - internal, external;  body parts, fauna 

            b. wave phenomena,  c.  areal influence.  d.  Olmec paper of Campbell and Kaufman. 

Homework- 1)  Read De Cormier, C. "Kekchi particle CAQ:  relations in time and

 space."; Freeze, R.  "Possession in K'ekchi' (Maya).";  England, N.

"Space as a Mam Grammatical theme."

2)read one of the following and briefly outline it so the grammatical pattern stands

 out: M.M. Cowan, l969, Tzotzil Grammar. (G 498, C838T, LAC);

V. Warkentin & R. Scott, 198O, Gramatica Ch'ol (S.I.L);

 or Take Warkentin and Whittaker's  Chol Texts of the Supernatural. (PM 3649, W 5, LAC)

and analyze the morphology. (This may be done with any other body of Mayan

 or Mixe-Zoquean texts that have interlinear or similar translations)

 

 

Week l2   Grammatical Particles and Affixes:  yes-no, wh-Q, neg; major categories

            of derivation and inflection.  Mam segmentation (vocab, grammar); Highland Tzeltal

            (future, perfect)

Homework  1) finish Mam problem.   


2)  read Penelope Brown, 1998. How and why are women more polite:

some evidence from a Mayan community. in J. Coates (ed.) Language and Gender (pp. 81-100); J. DuBois, "The Discourse Basis of Ergativity" in Language

3) work on a two page progress report on project of oral presentation.

 

                   

Week l3   Syntax and Discourse 

Homework 

 

Week l4    Projects

 

 

 

WEB RESOURCES  

 

http://www.ebiguatemala.org/link/category/33       downloadable Maya

                        dictionaries and other useful things       Educación Bilingue Guatemala

 

http://www.okma.org/       Oxlajuuj Keej Maya' Ajtz'iib'     

 

http://www.langlink.com/plfm/publicaciones_es.htm         Proyeco Lingüistico Francisco Marroquin      

 

Kinal Winik Cultural Center       http://www.csuohio.edu/kinalwinik/

 

Yaxte Books           http://www.csuohio.edu/yaxte/

 

 

                                          Contents of PACKET Mayan Languages  1998

 

SYLLABUS

 

LANGUAGE FAMILY, COMMUNITIES, DIVERSIFICATION

Language Family w/ populations and min cent. of diversification

Kaufman's diversification scheme

branching diagram (Campbell)

 

MAPS

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

WORDLIST / VOCABULARY

Guatemala SIL

*Proto-Mayan

 

SOUND SYSTEMS

Sample systems

Correspondence sets

Etyma with Traditional *k or *q

 

GRAMMAR

Mayan Language Survey Questionnaire

Tzeltal

Markedness

 

GLOTTOCHRONOLOGY

Lexicostatistic word list

Tze-Tzo Comparison

Tze-Tzo Time Depth

 


PRONOUNS

Yucatec

Huastec

Kekchi

Ergativity

Proto-Mayan Pronouns

 

NUMBERS

Tzeltal

Huastec

Quiche

Ixil

Mam

Thompson's number comparisons

Glyphic numbers

 

PROBLEMS

IPA symbols

Morphology Phonemicisation Problems I

Morphology (Problems, general)

Comparative Reconstruction I and II (general)

Internal Reconstruction (general)

Chontal 1  segment

Huastec 1  segment

Tzeltal 1  glide insertion

Tzeltal 2  suffix morphophonology

Tzeltal 3  highland Tzeltal

Tzotzil 1  a-o

Tzotzil 2  suffix morphophonology

Tzotzil  Huistan pronouns, noun classes

Kekchi 1 phonology

Kekchi 2 pronoun allomorphy

Kekchi 3 possession

Pocomchi 1

Mam Problem

Coatlan Mixe

 

GLYPHS

glyph information

definitions

Landa's syllabary

Day Names

Lounsbury's dating of calendrical developments


 

 

* = optional

 

BOOKS 

 

Gaspar Pedro González, A Mayan Life. (La Otra Cara) (Yaxte Press)

 

*          L. Schele and M. Miller, The Blood of Kings

 

*          Schele and Freidel, A Forest of Kings

 

*          D. Tedlock, The Popol Vuh

 

*          Bevington, Gary  1995.  Maya for Travelers and Students.

 

*          M.D. Coe, Breaking the Maya Code

 

*          M.M. Cowan, l969, Tzotzil Grammar. (G 498, C838T, LAC);

 

*          Dienhart, John M.  1989.  The Mayan Languges: a Comparative Vocabulary. (3 Volumes).  Odense: Odense University Press.

 

*          E.F. Fischer and R. McKenna Brown (eds.)  1996.  Maya Cultural Acivism in Guatemala.  U.T. Press

 *         D. Freidel and L. Schele, Maya Cosmos

 

*          Susan Garzon, R. McKenna Brown, Julia Becker Richards, and Wuqu' Ajpub' (eds.) 1998.  The Life of the Kaqchikel Lanaguage:  Maintenance, Shift and Revitalization.  U.T. Press.

 

*          Justeson, John S., Norman, William M., Campbell, Lyle and Terrence Kaufman.   1985.  The Foreign Impact on Lowland Mayan Language and Script. M.A.R.I.  Pub. # 53,  Tulane University, New Orleans.

 

*          Kaufman, Terrence and William M. Norman.   1984. "An outline of Proto-Cholan phonology, morphology, and vocabulary". in Phoneticism in Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing, ed. by John S. Justeson and Lyle Campbell.       I.M.S. Pub. # 9, S.U.N.Y. Albany.

 

*          L. Campbell,  1977. Quichean Linguistic Prehistory, (PM 4232, C35)

 

*          V.R. Bricker, Pronominal Inflection In The Mayan Languages. (Occasional Paper no. 1, M.A.R.I.). (PM 3963, B72, LAC);

 


*          J.S. Robertson, The Structure of Pronoun Incorporation in the Maya Verbal Complex.  

*          Tedlock, Dennis.  1993.  Breath on the Mirror: Mythic Voices & Visions of the Living Maya.  Harper Collins Paperback, edition 1994

 

*          V. Warkentin & R. Scott, 198O, Gramatica Ch'ol. (S.I.L);   

                   

*          A Whittaker and V. Warkentin  1965.  Chol Texts of the Supernatural. (PM 3649, W 5, LAC)

 

 

ARTICLES

 

B. Berlin, "Categories of eating in Tzeltal and Navajo", IJAL 33:1-6.;  

 

Brent Berlin, 1963, "A possible paradigmatic structure for Tzeltal pronominals," AL 5:1-5  (4O5 AN 89, PCL); 

 

B.Berlin & A.K. Romney, l964, "Descriptive semantics of Tzeltal numeral classifiers,"  AA 66(2), part 2:79-98 (572.O5, AM 35 NS, PCL;

 

C.H. Brown and S. Witkowsky "Aspects of the phonological history of Mayan-Zoquean" (IJAL 45:34-47 (l979)) (497.O5, IN 8, PCL)

 

Brown, Penelope.  1998. How and why are women more polite: some evidence from a Mayan community. in J. Coates (ed.) Language and Gender (pp. 81-100)

 

L. Campbell and T. Kaufman, l976, "A linguistic look at the Olmecs."  American Antiquity.  4l(l):8O-89.  E 51, A 51 PCL

            L. Campbell and T. Kaufman, 1985.  "Mayan linguistics: where are we now?" 

 

L. Campbell and T. Kaufman, "On Mesoamerican linguistics." and Witkowski, Stanley and Cecil Brown, "Mesoamerican historical linguistics and distant genetic relationship."; and  Campbell, Lyle and Terrence Kaufman, "Mesoamerican historical linguistics and distant genetic relationship: getting it straight."

 

C. de Cormier, "Kekchi particle CAQ:  relations in time and space.";

 

J. DuBois, "The Discourse Basis of Ergativity" in Language;

 

     Earle, Duncan M.  1986.  The metaphor of the day in Quiché:  notes on the nature of everyday life.  in G.H. Gossen (ed.) Symbol and Meaning Beyond the Closed Community.

 


N. England, "Space as a Mam grammatical theme."

 

R. Freeze, "Possession in K'ekchi'(Maya)."

 

R. Freeze, "Whence the future in K'ekchi'(Maya)"

 

G. Gossen, "Temporal and spatial equivalents in Chamula ritual symbolism."

 

(G. Gossen, "To speak with a heated heart.") 

 

*          N.A. Hopkins, l977, "Historical and sociocultural aspects of the distribution of linguistic variants in highland Chiapas, Mexico,"  In B. Blount and M. Sanches (eds.)  Sociocultural Dimensions of Language Change. (P4O, S55, PCL)

 

(M. Howard, "Kekchi religious beliefs and lore regarding the jungle.")

 

(W. Hanks, "Deixis and common sense.")

 

*          W. F. Hanks, 1984 "Sanctification, structure, and experience in a Yucatec ritual event." (Journal of American Folklore 97(384):131-166.

 

*          T. Kaufman, 1964.  "Materiales linguisticos para el estudio de las relaciones internas y externas de la familia de idiomas mayanos."

 

*          T. Kaufman, 1968.  "Teco-a new Mayan language."

 

T. Kaufman, l976,  "Archaeological and linguistic correlations in Mayaland and associated areas of Mesoamerica."  World Archaeology. 8(l):lOl-ll.  (PCL) 913.O5, W 893.  wk 3

 

T. Kaufman, "Pre-Columbian borrowing involving Huastec."

 

K.C. Keller, l955, "The Chontal (Mayan) numeral system,"  IJAL 2l:258-275 (497.O5, IN 8, PCL); 

 

E. Nida & M. Romero Castillo, l95O, "The pronominal series in Maya (Yucatec),"  IJAL l6:l93-l97. (497.O5, IN 8, PCL).

                        

J. Robertson, "The origins of the Mamean pronominals: a Mayan / Indo-European typological comparison."

 

J.S. Robertson, "A re-reconstruction of the ergative 1sg for common Tzeltal-Tzotzil based on colonial documents"

 

J.S. Robertson, 1986, "A Reconstruction and evolutionary statement of the Mayan numerals from twenty to four-hundred."  IJAL 52:227-241.

 

B. Stross, l973, "Reconstructed humor in a Tzeltal ritual formula,"  IJAL  39:32-4l (497.O5, IN 8, PCL); 

 

B. Stross, "The Language of Zuyua" Amer. Ethnol. 1O:15O-164 (GN 1, A53, PCL);

 

B. Stross, "Oppositional pairing in Mesoamerican divinatory day names" Anthropological Linguistics 25:273 (4O5, AN 89, PCL); 

 

*          M. Swadesh, "Interrelaciones de las lenguas Mayanses."  Anales del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.  13:231-267. (qF 1219, M 6O5 Z, LAC))

 

B. Tedlock, "Quiché Maya dream interpretation."

 

P. Thieme, "The comparative method for reconstruction in linguistics" 

 

R. Wilk, "Mayan ethnicity in Belize."

 

 

 

 

 

Mayan Languages Bibliography

 

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