CHORTI DICTIONARY  (from Wisdom 195O)




From microfilm of handwritten notes deposited at the University of Chicago by Charles Wisdom,

this dictionary was transcribed and transliterated by Brian Stross, Department of Anthropology,University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712.    Proofreading, interpretation, or other suggestions welcome.   Thanks to Randa Marhenke for some of these (12/2/00, 12/1/01).



ch is used here for Wisdom's c with a hatchek,   x  is used here for his š, and j is used here for his x (which I then transliterate to become an h in my normalized version of the Chortí).    tz  is used here for his  c,  and tz' replaces his c'.  Wisdom's q is transliterated as k, and his q' as k'  (since Chorti makes no  k / q distinction)




aambi'                          [in-xap'-i']  'last year, a year ago'

ah-                               '[prefix denoting person, agent, doer, causer, male sex]'

ah ha'tz'owar                ah.ha'c'ouar  'Chicchan (one of his several names)'

ah hor chan                   ah.hor.cha'n   'padrino'

ah hut                           'person'

ah kilis                          'a deity said to eat the sun and the moon (thus causing their eclipse)'

ah kirikna'ar                  'Chicchan (one of his descriptive names)'

ah korom tz'i'      '  'hunting dog' 

ah kuhkay                     ah.kuhkai  'a firefly-like insect'

ahk'ab                          [ah-ak'ap'] 'night, evening, nocturnal

hor ahk'ab                    'midnight'

umax ahk'ab                 'a nocturnal monkey'

ahk'ab burer                 'night fever'

ahk'ab mut                    ah.k'ap'.mut  'any nocturnal bird'

ahk'aburer                    ah.k'ap'urer [ahk'ap'-p'urer]  'night fever'

ahk'aburich                   ah.k'ap'urich [ahk'ap'-p'urich]  'night sweating'    

ahk'ab yark'ir                ah.k'ap'yarq'ir  'any nocturnal insect'

ah k'in                          'the day', spirit of the sun (patron of diviners; padre eterno), diviner (sabio).

hor ah k'in                    'mid day, midday meal'

ah k'optar                     'any wild animal or fowl'



ah k'ux                         [k'ux 'eat, gnaw on'] 'any thieving or gnawing animal'

ah k'ux nal                    'milpa pest'

ah k'ux ak'ach     'ach  'any chicken-stealing animal'

ah masak                      'yerba de la cruz (a wild vine)'

ah mauh                        'Duende (dwarf god of mountains and valleys, and

                                    protector of cattle'

ah mer chor                  ????  ('God of Remedies'  cf. Wisdom 1940:399)

ah mok                         'sick person, patient'

ne'n ah moken              'I am sick'

ha'x ah mok                  'he is sick'

e yah mokob                'the sick'

ah much                        'frog [see also tuh.ce']  /tuhtze'/'

ah patna'ar winikob       [patnaar, milpa work, milpa-working; winikop'; men, people]: 

group of .... deities (Angeles Trabajadores) who bring rain and who cause

                                    lightning by hurling stone axes at the Chicchans. (cf. Wisdom 1940:395)

ah pom                         'toucan' ah puch [puch : pouch']; 'opossum' 

burem ah puch              'a black opossum'

saksak ah puch             'a whitish opossum'

ah puch ha'                   [ha': aquatic]; tacuazin de agua (small edible opossum-like animal'

ah puch ch'o'k              [ch'o'k : rat] 'tacuazin, ratón [opossum-like animal]'

ah pat                           ah.p'at  [p'at ; small lizard]; 'lagartija (small lizard, probably the newt, or e't)' ah burem                        [p'urem : blackened] 'tinta de monte (cul. shrub from which a clothes

bluing is made)'

ah kox                          ah.qox  'pheasant'

ah k'uxuner                   ah q'uxuner  'any stinging insect'

ah ku'mix winikob         ah.qu'mix.winikop'  'name of a lesser group of rain-making deities to

whom the second rain-making ceremony is directed'

ah k'ana'n                     ah.q'an.a'n  'a name for ih p'en /ihben/ (spirit of maize)'

ah rum, ah ta rum          'any terrestrial or burrowing animal'       

ah rum chitam               'cochito de la tierra (small burrowing animal)'

ah rum ch'o'k                'a burrowing rat (rata de la tierra)', mole'

ah xur mut                    'pico de navaja (bird said to cut with its sharpened bill)'

ah xur nuk                    'quebranto hueso (a bird)'


p. 445

ah ta chor                     'any milpa pest (animal or bird)'

ah t'ix                           'cuerpo espino [sic, for puerco espino] (small burrowing animal

said to resemble both the d?? & the porcupine)'

ah chamsaner                'chamsán (poisonous mushroom)'

ah chab                        ah.chap'  'anteater, also the oso colmenero (small bear which robs beehives)'

ah chih-ch'an      'a'n  'chichaján (a wild woody vine)'

ah churur                      'tigrillo'

ah chuch                       'squirrel'

ah ch'ahnar                   ah.chahnar  'one who acts as guide'

ah ch'i'ir,                       ah ch'i'ir k'opot    'quequeshquillo (wild herbaceous plant)'

ah tzo'                '  'turkey [ chumpi']'

ah tzu'k               'k  'a Ladino'

ah tzu'k Ladino   'k Ladino    'a Ladino'

ah tzu'k ladinob   'k Ladinop'  'The Ladinos'

ah yum                         'master, owner, controller, deity'

ah yum ak'ot                 ah.yum.akot  'dance [con]troller or leader'

ah yum ik'ar                  ah.yum.ikar  'wind gods'

ah yum maxtak             ah.yum.maxtak  'headman of a family'

ah yum nar                    ah.yum.nar  'the four pellets of copal (or) wax placed inside the

storehouse to protect the maize'

ah yum rum                   'earth spirit'

ah yum tekpan              'Catholic priest'

ah yum chor                  'owner of a milpa'

ahk                               [?from a'k]  'sound, noise, rumble a ringing'

uy-ahkir e xukur           'the sounding of the river'

uy-ahkir e kirik             'the rumble of thunder'

uyahkir e witz'               uyahkir e wic'  'rumble of a waterfall' ahkah 'sound out, rumble be noisy [u.3-1]

ahkah e biriknahar tu'ut e k'in   aahkah e biriknaar tuut e k'in      'the thunder is rumbling in the sky'

tya' ahkah e ha'             tia' aahkah e ha'  'when the stream rumbles'

war ahkah e kirik          war aahkah e kirik  'the thunder is rumbling'

ahkah awayan               'it pours'

ahkah amusihk'ah          ahkah amusih k'ah  'he snores, he breathes heavily'

a'ahkah e tekpan tua' inte' chamen         'the church (bell) is ringing for a dead person'

ahkah inte' witz' tya' in ketbah               aahkah inte' uic' tia' in ketp'ah  'a waterfall rumbles

where I live'

warix a'akah                 'it was rumbling'

ma'chu'uy upa'akah       'it can't make a noise'

ahkar                            'noise, clamor'

ah ahkar                       'bellringer (of the church)'



ahkes                           'cause to sound out, ring churchbells [cl.2a]'

u-yahkes inte' ut e tak'in            'he makes a piece of iron ring (sound out)'

u-yahkes tu u-k'ab        uyahkes tuuq'ap'  'they make a noise with their hands (said of woman

making tortillas in the early morning)'

ahkes taka inte' kutin     'make a noise (clamor) with a drum'

ahkesnib                       ahkesnip'  'anything used for sounding or noise-making, church bell'

ahkix                            'groan, moan, cry'

ahknah                         'groan, moan'  [u.3-2]

war a ahknah kocha ah inok war aahknah kocha ah.mok           'he is groaning because he is sick'

u umbix inte' ixik war ahknah     uump'iix [in up'iix] inte' ixik war aahknah 

                                                'I heard a woman moaning'

cha ahknah                   chaahknah  [che aahknah]  'cause to groan'

uche a'anhknah             [in ahknah] 'he makes me groan'

ahknar                          'a groaning, a moaning, a groan' 

u'umbien e ahknar         'I heard a groan'

ahn                               'a running, a race'

ahner                            'quickly, rapidly, fast'

ahner axanah                'he walks fast'

ma'achu upa apatnah ahner kocha ah mok         'he can't work fast because he is sick'

ahner akanah                'he leaves rapidly'

ma ahner                      'slowly ??'

ahner taka                    'quickly'

apatnah ahner taka        'he works quickly'

ahnes                            'cause to run, chase, allow to flow or drain off,  assist a flow

(as in an irrigation ditch) [cl.2a].

uyahnesenani tor e xah  uyahnesenani tor e xaj  'he chased me across the meadow'

in-ahnes e ha'                'I drain off the water'

e tz'i' uy-ahnes ey ak'ach           e ci' uyahnes ey aq'ach  'the dog chases the chicken'

ka'ahnes e sik'ab           kaahnes e sik'ap   'we drain off the cane juice (from the press)'    

ahnesbir                        'chased, drained'

ahnesbil e ha'                'the water has been drained off'

in-te' mut ahnesbil umen e tz'i'    inte' mut ahnesp'ir umen e ci'  'a bird has been chased by the dog'

ahnesyaj                       'a chasing, a draining off'

ahnih                            'run, flow' [u.3-1]

inahnih                          'I run'

ayan inte' sib yaxa' war aahnih               ayan inte' sib' yaxa' war aahnih   'there is a boy over

there running'

aahnih                           'the water flows'

ahnih e ha'                    'the water flowed'

ahnih ixin                      'hasten, hurry away'

ahnih aanxin                  'I hasten'

ahnih aaxin                    'he hastens'

ahniaar                         'a running, a race, a flowing'

aahniaar                        [ah.ahniaar]  'runner, racer'

ahb                               ahp'  'cough [see alas ohp]

ahb uch'on                    ahp' uch'on  'whooping cough'


p. 447

ahk'                              ahq' [? ahaq']  'yield, produce, a giving or offering, ceremonial

sacrifice, punishment'

ahk'u                            'give, yield, produce (apparently not used in reference to fruit trees), provide, furnish,  sacrifice, beat, whip, punish' [cl.2-1]

ahk'u awe'                    'give food to, support a dependant person, pay a workman in food'

war in wahk'et iwe' ta ni'-otot    'I am supporting your ("giving you to eat") in my house'

ahk'u abuhki                 'provide one with clothes'

ahk'u u-kuchi                'load a person, assist one in getting a load on his back'

uy-ahk'u in-kuchi          'he assists me in getting a load in my back'

ahk'u u-k'ab                 'offer one's hand (as in hand-shaking), make up (w/ enemies)'

in-wahk'u hik'ab takar Juan       'I offer my hand to (shake hands with) John'

ahk'u uk'ab takar          'offer one's hand to shake hands with'

in k'ani tua' aw-ahk'u ak'ab takar          'I want you to make up with him'

ahk'u uyok taka            'put the foot to, kick'

ahk'u uyak' taka            ahq'u uya'k taka   'put the tongue to, taste'

ahk'u u-ni' taka             'sniff of'

ahk'u uhor taka             'butt'

ahk'u ta                        'beat or trip against'

ahk'u tu uy-ok              'whip a person's legs'

ahk'u tama                    'beat or whip with'

ahk'u teka                     ahq'u tcka  'beat or whip with'

ahk'u tama e tun            'beat with a stone'

ahk'u tama e te'             'beat with a stick'

ahk'u e k'eweer            'give the leather quirt to [standard expression meaning "to punish"]'

iinxin inwahk'u e k'eweer tuut [ta ahut]   'I am going to punish you'

ahk'u e ch'a'n                'yield bark string'

ahk'u uyopor                ahq'u uyop'or   'produce leaves'

ahk'uaar                       ahq'uaar [ahq'-u-ar]  'charity, alms, food given in hospitality'

ut ni ahk'uaar                'my offering (as charity)'

ahak'ubir                      'having given to, punished, etc.'

ahk'uyaj                        'a giving, a beating'

ahon horin                    [corr. of ajonjoli, or ajonjolín] 'sesame'  [or quite possibly amaranth]

ahr                               'time, occasion'

aimpon yahr                  'many times, often'

inte'nuahr                      'once, one time, next time'

in yahr                          'one time, once, as soon as, first'

aihn                              aihn [? ah.hin]  'alligator, large lizard; giant lizard spirit (lagarto)

said to inhabit and protect deep spots in streams and to attack lone

bathers at night with its long bone- pointed tail'

ain                                'sharpness, sharp edge'

ainir                              'sharp'

ainran                           'be sharp, have an edge' [cl.3-2]


p. 448             

ainres                           'sharpen, put an edge to' [cl.2a]

ak                                'grass, grass-like plant or vine (generic), green fodder, long spine'

mach' ak                       'any moss-like grass'

mo'r ak                         'zacate mogote (a grass)'

noxi' yaak                     'any tall grass'

parpar ak                     'a wild grass'

sak ak                          'zacate blanco (a grass)'

saksak ak                     'a fodder grass'

sisar ak                         'lemon grass'

xa'q' ak                        xa'q'.ak   'Tesquesal. (bristly-leaved grass)'

ak kin                           'grass blade, grass with long stalk'

ak ko'                           'zacate de vares (a cultivated forage grass)'

ak pohp                        ak.pohp'  'navajuila (a wild reed grass)'

ak k'ahk'                      'flax (a highland plant especially used for inflammations'

ak takin                        'dry grass, hay'

ak uxaj                         ["spine of the field"] 'sewing needle (made of a long spine);

aguja de arria (a wild spring tree); a field cricket (cabellito)'

ak yuj                           'Job's-tears (a cultivated lowland grass)'

akir                              'grassy, grass-like'

akirih                            'yield grass or grasslike parts' [cl.3-3]

akiriaar                         'grass producing'

akmiyan                        'pimienta gorda (allspice tree)'

akmiyan te'                   'pimiento (a wild tree)'

akmiyan t'ix                  'clavo de monte (a wild tree)'

ak'ut                             akut  'ceremonial dance'

ah ak'ut                        ah.akut   'dancer'

ah ak'utob                    ah.akutop'     'group of dancers' uyak'ut e noh k'in  uyakut e noh.k'in 

'fiesta dancer'

uyak'ut e tekpan           'church dance'

ak'utal                          akut.tar  'place where a dance is held'

ak'tah                           aktah  'dance' [cl.3-1]

aank'tah tuno'r e ak'bar             aanktah [in.aktah] tuno'r e ak'p'ar  'I dance all night'

k'ani aank'tah                'I want to dance'

aak'tah nitata'                'my father dances'

k'ani in-kanoh aank'tah  'I wish to learn to dance'

ak'taar                          'dancing and dance'

ah ak'taar                     'dancer'

ak'tes                           'teach to dance'  [cl.2a]

ak'tesyah                      aktesyaj   'teaching of dancing'

ah ak'tesyah                  ah ktesyaj  'dance instructor'


p. 449

ak'ab                            ak'ap'   'night [seldom used; v. ak'p'ar]

uyak'ab e noh k'in         'night of a fiesta'

ahk'ab                          [ah.ak'ap']  'be night'

ahk'ab burich                'night sweating'

ahk'ab burer                 'night fever'

ak'at                             [possibly ak'ut; morpheme stem seldom used] 'permission, freedom, abandonment'

ak'ta                             'leave alone, forget about, abandon, neglect, turn loose, permit, unload, unhand, free (as a captured animal). abstain from' [cl.2-1]

ak'ta ta ha'                    'leave in water, soak in water'

ak'ta ubah                     'free itself (as from a trap)'

ak'ta umaxtak               'abandon one's family'

ak'ta u we'                    'abstain from food (as during a ceremony)'

ak'ta e ixik, ak'ta uwixkar    'abstain from sex'

ak'ta e waynih               ak'ta e wainij  'abstain from sleep (as during a ceremony'

ak'ta e patna'ar             'abstain from work (as during a fiesta)'

maachi ak'ta                 'not to leave alone, prevent, refuse, deny'

maachi uyak'ta uche      'prevent someone form doing'

maachi inwak'ta apatnah           'I prevent him from working'

maachuuyak'teen          'he refuses me, he denies me'

ak'ta ixin                       'let go, permit to go'

inwak'ta axin                 'I let him (it) go'

uyak'ta iinxin                 'he lets me go'

ak'ta ahneh                   'drain off, run off a liquid, allow to run off'

in wak'ta aahni e ha'      'I drain the water off'

ak'ta chamaih                'let die, neglect (as an animal or plant)'

ak'ta ohrih                    'let fall a drop'

in wak'toohrih               'I let it fall'

ak'tabil                         'freed, turned loose, left, neglected, it has been freed, etc.'

ak'tabir ta ha'                'left to soak in water'

inte' chor ak'tabir          'neglected milpa'

ak'tabir e chor              'the milpa has been neglected'

inte' korom ak'tabir       'a freed animal' ak'tabir e ixik     'abandoned woman (wife), the woman

has been abandoned'

ak'tayah                        ak'tayaj  'freedom, neglect, permission'

ak'bar                           [ak'ab-ar] 'night, at or during the night, by night'

tunoor e ak'bar             'all night'

kone'r ak'bar                'tonight'

las nueue ak'bar            'nine o'clock (p.m.)

aaxan ak'bar                 'he came at night'

mut ak'bar                    'any nocturnal bird'

ak'baran                       'become dusk, dusk, evening [cl.3-3]

war aakbaran               'it is becoming dusk'

ak'baraner                    'darkness, obscurity'



ak'bareh                       'become night, get dark [cl.3-3]

war aak'bareh               'it is getting dark'

ak'bariaar                     [ak'p'areh-ar]  'nocturnal, nightly, at night'

ak'bariaar mut               'any nocturnal bird'

ah ak'bariaar                 'nocturnal bird or animal'

ak'bi'                            [ak'ap'-i] 'yesterday, of yesterday'

e haha'ar ak'bi'              'yesterday's rain'

ak'bi' patneen               'yesterday I worked'

ak'bi' tunoor e k'in        'all day yesterday'

ak'bi' lok'oyen tua' inwira          'yesterday I ???? ???'

ak'bi' maxaan                'yesterday at dusk'

ak'bi' [h]or ah k'in         'yesterday noon'

ak'bi' to                        'goodbye'

ak'bi' ch'a'an k'in           'yesterday at dusk'

ak'bi' wa'an k'in            'yesterday morning'

ala pa'pik                      'nakahiute (undescribed plant)'

almir                             [corr. of alma] 'pertaining to the stomach and abdomen'

k'ux almir                      q'ux.almir  'stomach ache [syn for k'ux nakir]'

am                                'spider [generic]'

uyar am                        'spider's  young'

uwahr am                     [] 'spider's web'

am te'                           'tempisque (wild hardwood tree)'

am tz'ak                        [c'ak : remedy] 'contrayerva (wild herb)'

amas                            'elbow'

uy-amas                       'one's elbow'

amajon kene'                [Span. cov?.] 'a variety of banana (guineo majoncho)'

amuk'a'                         'zapotillo (a wild zapote-like tree)'

anam                            'mud'

anam taka                     'muddy, containing mud'

anamtar                        'muddy spot, bog'

anamtar e chitam           'bog used by pigs'

anamtar ta bi'r               'bog in a trail'

anamir                          'muddy, covered with mud'

anamran                       'get muddy', muddy up' [cl.3-2]

war anamran e ut ha'     'the spring is getting muddy'

aanamran e ha'              'the water gets muddy'

anamres                        'muddy anything, put mud on' [cl.2a]

anamres inte' ut ha'        'muddy a spring'


p. 451

ab                                'hammock, swinging or hanging container, swinging bridge'      

ab tak'in                       ap'.ta'k'in [ta'k'in : iron] 'swinging bridge with steel cable'

tor e xukur jocotán       'cable footbridge over the Rio Jocotan'

ab-te'                           [te' : made of wood or plants] 'swinging bridge'

ak'                                'covering, skin, hide, object resting on another, load  (tere??, cucuche),

thick growth of wild plants'

ak'ax                            'spot or mark on the skin, spot without pigment'

ak'ax ubah                    'general loss of pigmentation'

ak'ax uut                       'loss of pigmentation in the face'

ak'ax lunar                    'birthmark'

ayan en inte' ni ak'ax lunar         'I have a (my) birthmark'

ak' k'opot                     'densely-growing weeds or shrub, spot completely covered with small vegetation'

ak'-tun                          aq.tun  'large boulder, balanced boulder'

ak'ar                             'charcoal'

ut ak'ar                         'piece of charcoal'

uy-ak'arar e tah te'        uyaq'arar e tah.te'  'pine charcoal'

uy-ak'arar e ch'oror     uyarq'arar e ch'oror  'oak charcoal'

burut ak'ar                    'burnt charcoal'

ak'ach                          'chicken, any chicken-like bird'

uyar ak'ach                   'chicken's young'

arak ak'ach                   'domestic chicken'

uwihch'ok ak'ach          'young hen'

sarin ak'ach                  'spotted chicken'

ak'ach k'opot                'yerba del pollo (wild L. herb)'

ak'ach te'                      'frijolillo, moco de gallo (wild H. shrub)'

ak'in                             'the clearing of wild vegetation from milpas and gardens'

nin-ak'in                       'my milpa-clearing, my land-clearing'

utzner kak'aiyes kaak'in            ucner kak'aiyes kaaq'in  'now we begin our (land) clearing'

ak'in chor                     'milpa-clearing (before planting)'

ah ak'in chor                 'one who clears off his milpa'

ak'inbir                         'cleaned, cleared, readied fro planting'

uchor ak'inbir                'his cleared milpa, his milpa has been cleared'

ak'ni                             [aq'in-i]  'clear off wild vegetation (preparatory

                                    to planting), weeds' [cl.2-1]

war inwak'ni nichor       'I am clearing my milpa'

inna'ta aankni                inna'ta aanq'ni [in-aq'ni]  'I know how to clear milpa'


p. 452

ar                                 'mammal, animal (as opposed to plant), son of female speaker;

offspring, young [with poss. u-]

uy-ar                            'one's (woman's) child, her son, its young'

uy-arob                        'one's children, all its young, its litter'

uy-ar ihch'ok                'one's (woman's) female child'

ar am                            'young of a spider'

uy-ar am                       'its (spider's) young'

ar ak'ach                      'chick' ar ihch'ok          'female child'

ar masa'                        'fawn, young male deer'

ar mi's                          'kitten'

ar sitz'                           'male child'

uy-ar sitz'                      'one's male child'

niy-ar sitz'                     'my male child'

ar chab                         'a large wild honey bee (aveja)'

ar chumpi'                     'turkling <baby turkey>'

ar tz'i'                 '  'puppy'

uyar tz'i'                        'its pup''

uy-ar tz'i'ob                  uyar.cio'op'  'its litter of pups'

ar wakax                      'calf, young bull'

ara                               'force out, expel [cl.2-1]

uy-ara e k'u'm               uyara e q'u'm  'she (the hen) lays an egg'

arah                              'exude, emit (as sap), give birth [not used in reference to human birth;

see quxi ], lay an egg, yield (as fruit), produce' [cl.3-1]

wartoix aarah                'she has just laid (an egg)'

war aarob e te'             'the trees are exuding (sap)'

aran                              'anything thrown or expelled'

arnah                            'be exuded'

arnaar                           'anything exuded, birthling, a laid egg'

ahrna'ar                        [ah-arnaar]  'animal newly-born'

arar                              [appears also as  a'rar, and always with poss. u-], excretion, emission, sap, juice (of plant or crushed fruit), soup (made from fruit or vegetable)'

uyarar e bu'ur               uyarar e p'uur  'bean soup'

uyarar e kar                  'soup made of greens'

uyarar e tah te'              'pitch of pine tree'

uyarar e te'                   'sap of tree'

uyarar e sik'ab              'sugarcane juice'

uyarar e ich                   'juice of (crushed) chilli'

uyarar u tux                  'lubricant of vagina'

uyarar u ti'                    'saliva'

uyarar u ti' e ah much   'spume of a frog'

uyarar u ni'                    'nasal mucous'

uyarar u kur                  uyarar uqur  'semen, any penis secretion'

uyarar u hor                  'one's brains'

uyarar u k'uhtz'             'tobacco spittle (used in curing and divining)'

uyarar u nak' wut          uyarar una'k' uut  'any eye excretion, tear(s)'

uyarar u yak'                 uyarar uya'k   'drool'


p. 453

uyarar sa'                      'chilate (a maize gruel)'

arix                               'already exuding, laid, yielded'

arak                             'domestic animal, fowl, or insect; domestic, cultivated, tame'

uyarakob                      'one's domestic animals'

ut niwarak                    'my domestic animals, one of my animals'

arak ak'ach                   'domestic chickens'

arak ich                        arak.i'ch  'any cultivated chilli'

arak sukchih                 'any cultivated maguey (specifically maguey de Castilla)'

arak chitam                   'European pig'

arak chumpi'                 'domestic turkey'

arakes                          'domesticate an animal or plant, tame an animal [Cl.2a]'

arakesbir                      'domesticated, tamed, domestic animal'

ni warakesbir                'my domestic animals'

arakesyah                     arakesyaj  'raising of domesticated animals; animal breeding'

ah arakesyah                'animal raiser or breeder'

arakih                           'raise domestic animals, keep animals' [Cl.3-1]

arakbar                        'tamed, domesticated'

arakbar we'er               'domestic meat'

arakbar tz'i'                   'tamed dog'

arakbar mut                  'tamed bird'

aranxex                        [corr. of naranjas] 'grapefruit'

pahpah aranxix             'citron'

aras                              'toy, plaything'

uyarasob e yar              'children's playthings'

ah aras                         'player'

ah arasob                     'group or team of players, group of boys who play together'

aras te'                         'wooden toy'

aras tun                        'toy made of stone'

aras chek                      'doll'

arasi                             'play with (as with a toy), finger a thing absent-mindedly), toy with' [Cl.2-1]

uyarasi upuch ukoton    'he fingered the flap of his shirt'

arasnah                         'he toyed with, he played with'

arasna'ar                       'anything played or toyed with'

ah arasna'ar                  'playmate'

arasbir                          'played with, toyed with'

arib                              'son's wife'

as                                 'play, banter'

asar                              'a game'

asar tua' uyarob            'game for one's children'

asar tua' e ah ch'ok takob         'game for girls'

asar tua' e sitz'              'boy's game'

asarih                           'play a game' [Cl.3-3]

asih                              'play, romp, clown, joke' [Cl.3-1]

asih takar                      'play with, tease or ridicule good naturedly'

aasih takaren                'he teases me'

asam                            'short (of a plant); comalillo (edible worm)'

asahwan                       asajwan  'swallow (bird); flor de pascua (a cultivated plant)'

asahwan k'opot            'yerba de golondrina (wild L. herb)'

asahwan te'                   'golondrinera (an undescribed plant)'

ax                                 'spot, color, stripe, mark'

axko'                            'striped squash, spotted gourd'

at                                 'bath, bathing'

at tar                            'bathing spot (in a stream)'

ater                              'a bath'

ater ta kohn                  'bath in a stream'

ah ater                          'bather'

ah aterob                      'group of bathers'

ates                              'bathe someone' [Cl.2a]

ates uyar                       'bathe one's child'

ates uyok                      'wash one's legs'

ates ubah                      'bathe oneself'

atesyah                         'child-bathing, bathing of the sick'

atih                               'bathe, wash' [Cl.3-1]

atih taka e hustan          'bathe with the robe on (as women do in a stream)'

atih pispis                     'bathe nude'

aatih                             'he bathes'

atih ta kohn                   'bathe in a stream'

atbir                             'bathed, have bathed'

ach                               'tortoise, terrapin (meaning not certain)'

atz'am                           'salt'

awatz'am                      'my salt'

yari e atz'am tar            'put salt on it (as on food)'

atz'am rum                    'salty soil, salt bed'

atz'am tar                      'salt locality (where native salt is found)'

atz'am tun                     'rock salt, sonte containing salt'


p. 455

atz'am witzir                  'native salt (used principally in remedies; (sal villana).'

atz'amer                        'saltiness'

atz'amir                         'salty, containing salt'

atz'ambir                       'salted; it has been salted'

atz'ambir pa'                 'salted tortilla (carried on journey)'

atz'ambir bu'ur              'salted beans'

atz'ambir we'er             'salted meat'

atz'amran                      'get to be salty, turn salty' [Cl.3-2]

atz'amres                      'salt (as for eating or presentation), salt down' [Cl.2a]

inxin anwatz'amres niwe'er        'I am going to salt my meat'

atz'amresyah                 ac'amresyaj  'food salting'

atz'amyan                     'salty, containing salt'

awan                            'any collateral cousin, or his mate, of any remove who is of the

speaker's generation level; any similar kin of one's mate)

awauh wi                      awauhui  fern (generic); centipede'

saksak awauhwi            'a wild fern'

awauh wi hopob           'crawfish'

ay                                 [? ai] 'be,  have, own'

ayan                             'there is (are)' [cl.3-1]

ayan inte' mut tor e te'   'there is a bird on the tree'

ayan ninar                     'I have maize ("there is my maize")'

ayan uk'aba'                 'have a name ("there is its name")'

ayan umusik'                 ayan umusik    'have breath, be alive'

hay ayan e sanbaar       jai ayan e sanp'aar   'if there is swelling, if swelling occurs'

tuk'a ayan                     'what happens, what goes on'

ayan e winikob             'there are men, there are people'

ayanani inbon e winikob ta chinam         'there were many people in town'

ayan ta nibah                'I have, I possess ("there is to myself")'

ayan e nar tu'ubah         [ta up'ah]  'he has maize'

ayan e bu'ur                  'there are beans (beans are available)'

ayanento ninar tua' ink'uxi          'I still have maize to eat'

inayan inte' otot             'I have a house'

ayix                              'there used to be, there was (long ago)'

ayix inte' kohn irah        'there used to be a stream here'

a'                                  'thigh, supper leg [cf. ok]

ut uya'                          'one's thigh'

uya'                              'his thigh'

niwa'                            'my thigh'



a'ir                                a'ir [e'ir]  'pertaining to the thigh or upper leg'

bak ya'ir                       'thigh bone, femur'

ak'                                a'k  'tonguge, any tongue-shaped leaf, fruit, or plant; any fleshy-leafed

plant; cactus'

pech ak'                       'cochineal fig tree [i.e. Opuntia cactus]'

kachbir ak'                   'tongue-tied'

ak'ubi                           a'k.up'i  'listen, heed, follow advice' [cl.3gb]

a'n                                'spring maize, roasting maize, young ear of maize (elote)'

uya'nir e nar                  'young ears of maize'

k'ux a'n                         'eating of spring maize'

mux a'n                         'ground maize paste (maza)'

k'an a'n                         'ripe spring maize'

a'n chor                        [chor : milpa] 'milpa when the ears are first edible'

a'nsi                              [corr. of anís] 'cultivated anise'

a'nsi k'opot                   'anís de monte, anis de chucho'

a'nsi te'                         'anisillo (wild herb)'

ab                                a'p  'bladder [meaning not certain]

abich                            a'pich  'urine, any watery excretion (especially of

                                    plants), juice, sap'

abich tama ubah            'urine in one's body'

uyabich e winik             'urine of a man'

uyabich e koko'            'water of a coconut'

uyabich e pa'y               uya'p.ich e p'a'i  'protective liquid of skunk'

uyabich e ah much        'spume of frog'

mak abich                     'lack of urine'

num yabich                   'urinal flow, passage of urine'

burem yapich                'dark urine'

kuch yabich                  'bladder'

abchih                          [a'p-ichih]j 'urinate, spew' [cl.3b].

aabchih                         'he urinates'

abchih tama uyex          'urinate in ones' trousers'

abchih ta rum                'urinate on the ground'

abchih tu'ut te'               'urinate against a tree (as a dog).

k'ani aabchih                 'he wants to urinate'

iwa'wan aabchih           iua'wan aa'pchih  'he urinates standing'

t'uchwan aabchih          'she urinates squatting'

u-hachi u-yok tua' aabchih        'he (dog) raises his leg to urinate'

abchiar                         'act of urinating, urinating'

ah abchiar                     'bed-wetting child'

abchir                           [a'p-ich-ir] 'pertaining to the bladder'

k'as abchir                    q'as.a'pchir  'passage of urine'

a'r                                a'r  'speaking, saying'

a're                               'speak, tell, demand, ask for [cl.2-1]

a're hay                        a're jai 'ask of, request'

uya're'en                       'he tells me, he says to me'

inwa're                         'I tell him'


Dictionary index