FOUNDATIONS FOR GROUP LEARNING
 
Piaget's social interaction idea
 
 

Vygotsky's ZPD and social interaction ideas
 
 

Social constructivism
 

Cognitive theory


Advantages of group learning
 

1. Students come to a more complete understanding by comparing with others.

2. Having to explain to others encourages elaboration.

3. Students with better skills serve as models.

4. Discussion of controversial topics promotes more sophisticated thinking.

5. They're usually more motivating.


Discussions

What the book says:
 

1. topics with multiple perspectives

2. sufficient prior knowledge

3. classroom atmosphere

4. use of small groups first

5. structured

6. group norms

7. closure


Group Projects

WHAT THE LITERATURE SAYS
 

1. Teacher assigned groups

2. Common goals

3. Behavior norms

4. Interdependence

5. Structure

6. Individual accountability

7. Group rewards

8. Assess group process



Reciprocal teaching
 
Between teacher and students

Uses modeling of learning strategies

 Example: Teaching reading strategies




 

Cognitive apprenticeship
 

Between a master and a novice

Focuses on thinking aloud by master

Involves modeling, coached practice, scaffolding, articulation, reflection and exploration

Example: clinical internships



Peer tutoring
 
Between a more advanced student and a beginning student

Also uses modeling but of a more approachable individual

Tutors benefit, too

Example: Neighborhood Longhorns



Communities of learners
 
Between students and teachers as learners, too

Usually revolves around a similar interest

Process of learning is emphasized

Example: Freshman interest groups




Cooperative Learning
 
Keys to success
 
Individual accountability (everyone must succeed)
 
 

Team rewards  (positive interdependence)
 
 

Equal opportunities for success  (all contribute by succeeding)


Research findings

Affects:
  Academic achievement

Intergroup relations

Mainstreaming

Self-esteem

Positive feelings about learning


 
 

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