1. Popular culture is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
A.mass production.
B.money economy.
C.high degree of mobility.
D.considerable leisure time.
E.strong family control.


2. If there is a single hallmark of popular culture it is
A.growth.
B.progress.
C.change.
D.fad.
E.trend.


3. People who cannot contend with boom-boxes, auto-tellers, beepers, cell-phones, and E-Mail suffer from
A.social progress.
B.futurism.
C.future shock.
D.culture shock.
E.attention deficit disorder.


4. As popular culture spreads, _____ retreats.
A.folk life
B.tradition
C.superstition
D.all of the above
E.none of the above


5. Edward Relph's term placelessness refers to
A.standardization of landscape.
B.the merging of suburban and urban landscapes.
C.unpopulated regions.
D.the realm of popular culture.
E.the fragmentation of lifestyle regions.


6. All of the following are related EXCEPT
A.universal.
B.cosmopolitan.
C.provincial.
D.rootlessness.
E.placelessness.


7. "Gray Power" and "Norma Rae-Ville" are examples of
A.placeless landscapes.
B.ZIP code regions.
C.life-style clusters.
D.all of the above.
E.none of the above.


8. While folk cultures might gather around the hearth or fire, popular cultures have their own gathering place. This is _____ which centers its own _____ space.
A.a CD player/family
B.a CD player/social
C.television/formal
D.television/social
E.a computer/functional


9. The Internet heightens regional differences because of its
A.linkage of points.
B.information highway.
C.uneven distribution.
D.net surfing.
E.prana.


10. Cyberspace lacks prana such as
A.cultural landscapes.
B.human diversity.
C.real places.
D.all of the above.
E.none of the above.


11. Foodways, beauty pageants, and spectator sports all exhibit
A.spatial patterns.
B.regional differences.
C.areal concentrations.
D.all of the above.
E.none of the above.


12. Which of the following place-consumption associations are NOT correct?
1) Utah and beer
2) Colorado and beer
3) Tennessee and whisky
4) Illinois and moonshine
5) California and wine
A.none are correct
B.1, 3, 4
C.4 only
D.1, 2, 4
E.1 & 4


13. The top five states in per capita production of National Football League players are all in a contiguous belt
A.along the Pacific Coast.
B.from New York to Florida.
C.across the Midwest.
D.across the Deep South.
E.around the Great Lakes.


14. Regardless of size or origin, vernacular regions are _____ in character.
A.functional
B.perceptual
C.natural
D.perpetuated
E.variated


15. The initial spread of McDonalds illustrates _____ diffusion while the initial spread of Wal-Mart exhibits _____ diffusion.
A.contagious/hierarchical
B.hierarchical/contagious
C.reverse hierarchical/contagious
D.hierarchical/relocation
E.contagious/reverse hierarchical


16. When Wal-Mart decided to enter small town markets prior to big city ones, it was following a pattern of _____ diffusion.
A.advanced hierarchical
B.reverse hierarchical
C.hierarchical
D.stratified contagious
E.contagious


17. The most effective device for diffusion in popular culture is
A.the media.
B.transportation.
C.innovation.
D.advertising.
E.motion pictures.


18. The rapid diffusion of popular culture has rendered _____ less important.
A.innovation
B.advertising
C.distance
D.time-distance decay
E.hierarchical diffusion


19. Today, _____ is the most significant aspect of advertising.
A.text
B.color and context
C.place imagery
D.cyberspace
E.none of the above


20. "Punk rock," "women's music," "reggae," and "gangsta rap" are forms of popular music that experienced barriers to diffusion. This illustrates the concept that diffusion of innovation ultimately depends on
A.live concerts.
B.advertising.
C.media censorship.
D.regional footholds.
E.flow of information.


21. The fact that American newspapers print less news of foreign origin than Canadian newspapers demonstrates that newspapers serve as
A.effective agents of diffusion.
B.selective barriers to diffusion.
C.advertising agents for foreigners.
D.all of the above.
E.none of the above.


22. A country that banned satellite television to keep out "corrupting influences" is
A.Afghanistan.
B.India.
C.Nicaragua.
D.Iran.
E.Libya.


23. The modern rodeo is related to all of the following EXCEPT
A.folk tradition.
B.Utah.
C.Mexican cowboys.
D.the Great Plains.
E.Omaha and Prescott.


24. In the United States, the greatest strength of the commercial rodeo is in areas that produce
A.wheat.
B.cotton.
C.beef cattle.
D.horses.
E.sheep.


25. _____ failed to diffuse throughout the United States.
A.Diners
B.Pizza
C.Rap music
D.All of the above
E.None of the above


26. The adaptive strategies pursued by people living in popular cultures have enormous potential for producing
A.environmental perceptions.
B.intimate relationships with the physical environment.
C.close associations between people and the land.
D.advantageous ecological relationships.
E.ecological disasters.


27. Which of the following statements about the ecology of popular culture is NOT correct?
A.Popular culture can intensify the impact of natural hazards.
B.Because of increased leisure time, the popular way of life is low-energy culture.
C.Technological advances have reduced climatic influences on popular sports.
D.Popular culture makes heavy demands on the physical environment.
E.Some governments are setting aside "wilderness areas" to protect natural areas from popular culture, people, and their leisure activities.


28. According to the convergence hypothesis, people and places are
A.becoming more regionalized.
B.achieving a sense of place.
C.becoming more differentiated.
D.becoming more alike.
E.becoming increasingly individualized.


29. In the realm of popular culture, individualism is creating
A.regionalism.
B.placelessness.
C.group loyalties.
D.cultural convergence.
E.widespread wealth.


30. Special-interest media "narrowcasting" can help produce and nurture
A.a new regionalism in popular culture.
B.a new spatially diverse popular culture.
C.spatial restructuring.
D.all of the above.
E.none of the above.


31. People have always formed idyllic images of faraway places. Presenting paradisical images of places would be MOST important in the _____ industry.
A.finance
B.shipping
C.communication
D.apparel
E.tourism


32. According to the British geographer Rob Shields, places on the margin are typically
A.spatially peripheral, containing undesirable lifestyles or activities.
B.not in the center of cities or regions.
C.folk culture regions.
D.all of the above.
E.none of the above.


33. Which of the following combinations of landscapes of popular culture are correct?
1. gentleman farm/elitist space
2. apartment complex/landscape of consumption
3. West Edmonton Mall/landscape of elsewhereness
4. RV resort/place on the margin
5. tennis court/leisure landscape
A.1 and 5
B.1, 3, and 5
C.1, 3, 4, and 5
D.2, 3, 4, and 5
E.2, 3, and 4


34. In their study of a landscape of consumption, geographers Jakle and Mattson have shown that there are five stages in commercial strip evolution. When drive-in trade proliferates, _____ declines sharply.
A.commercial activity
B.agriculture
C.religious activity
D.residential use
E.automobile use


35. Reconstructed places such as Williamsburg, Virginia and Fort Louisbourg, Nova Scotia are
A.historylands.
B.leisure landscapes.
C.landscapes of consumption.
D.all of the above.
E.none of the above.


36. Geographer David Lowenthal has observed that the American landscape reveals Americans' preoccupation with
A.bigness.
B.consumption.
C.sameness.
D.the physical environment.
E.architectural form.


37.
Using the numbered map of the United States, choose the number that best represents the feature or place.
R-1 USA Map

"American Heartland" of sport.
A.42
B.49
C.28
D.7
E.1



38.
Using the numbered map of the United States, choose the number that best represents the feature or place.
R-1 USA Map

Beauty Queen belt.
A.from 8 to 50
B.from 50 to 65
C.from 12 to 50
D.from 12 to 39
E.from 25 to 50



39.
Using the numbered map of the United States, choose the number that best represents the feature or place.
R-1 USA Map

Hearth of "rock and roll" music.
A.50
B.38
C.56
D.59
E.34



40.
Using the numbered map of the United States, choose the number that best represents the feature or place.
R-1 USA Map

"Gray Power."
A.14
B.12
C.23
D.36
E.65



41.
Using the numbered map of the United States, choose the number that best represents the feature or place.
R-1 USA Map

Region of "gentleman farms."
A.53
B.49
C.43
D.60
E.2



42.
Using the numbered map of the United States, choose the number that best represents the feature or place.
R-1 USA Map

Desert front yards.
A.6
B.13
C.32
D.46
E.57



43.
Using the numbered map of the United States, choose the number that best represents the feature or place.
R-1 USA Map

Hearth of the rodeo.
A.14
B.20
C.16
D.15
E.13



44.
Using the numbered map of the United States, choose the number that best represents the feature or place.
R-1 USA Map

RV resort landscape.
A.3
B.5
C.7
D.13
E.23



45.
Using the numbered map of the United States, choose the number that best represents the feature or place.
R-1 USA Map

Stronghold of the fast-food industry.
A.6
B.20
C.44
D.51
E.65



46.
Using the numbered map of the United States, choose the number that best represents the feature or place.
R-1 USA Map

Wal-Mart diffused from this state.
A.1
B.6
C.28
D.33
E.48



47. "Future Shock" occurs when people are unable to cope with rapid cultural change.
A.True
B.False


48. Popular culture exists where secular institutions are in control.
A.True
B.False


49. The majority of "developed" countries now belong to popular rather than folk culture.
A.True
B.False


50. With popularization, family structures and interpersonal relationships are strengthened.
A.True
B.False


51. The "geography of nowhere" is related to placelessness.
A.True
B.False


52. Cyberspace enhances our perceptions of human diversity.
A.True
B.False


53. The Internet helps to heighten regional contrasts.
A.True
B.False


54. Placelessness is more important than regionalism in describing popular culture landscapes.
A.True
B.False


55. The further we withdrew from our folk tradition, the less important organized games became for us.
A.True
B.False


56. One writer described football in the East as a "cultural exercise" and in the South as "religion."
A.True
B.False


57. Our major spectator sports emerged with the popularization of culture in the nineteenth century.
A.True
B.False


58. In the Northeast, women's collegiate sports are ruled by basketball.
A.True
B.False


59. Beauty pageants originated in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
A.True
B.False


60. Vernacular regions are frequently perpetuated by the mass media.
A.True
B.False


61. The "Midwest" is not a vernacular region because it can be defined by political boundaries.
A.True
B.False


62. Cyberspace inhibits the chance for change in popular culture because diffusion cannot occur in networks.
A.True
B.False


63. There can be no barriers to the spread of popular culture.
A.True
B.False


64. If you are looking for information about United Europe, you would expect to find more information in Canadian newspapers than American ones.
A.True
B.False


65. Before any popular culture elements such as cell-phones become ubiquitous, they must overcome barriers to diffusion.
A.True
B.False


66. One of the paradoxes of the modern age and popular culture is that the more we cluster in cities and suburbs, the greater our impact on open spaces.
A.True
B.False


67. Japanese indoor ski domes, driving ranges, and surfing beaches demonstrate that while climatic influence of sport is waning, energy consumption is also decreasing.
A.True
B.False


68. Members of popular culture spend more time on leisure activities within urban environments.
A.True
B.False


69. Urban refuse exacerbates popular culture's impact on natural environments.
A.True
B.False


70. Working against the convergence hypothesis is the greater personal individualism characteristic of popular culture.
A.True
B.False


71. In context of "places on the edge," spatial margins contain landscape elements denied or repressed by spatial centers.
A.True
B.False


72. A "gentlemen farm" is an elitist landscape.
A.True
B.False


73. According to Jakle and Mattson, in the evolution of commercial strips, the introduction of gas stations forms the vanguard of commercialization.
A.True
B.False


74. People who live and work in a particular landscape perceive it in the same way as do outsiders.
A.True
B.False


75. Perhaps no landscape of consumption is more reflective of popular culture than the indoor shopping mall.
A.True
B.False


76. Many leisure landscapes are related to tourism.
A.True
B.False


77. Weekend cottages around Lake Ontario are BEST classified as "transient landscapes."
A.True
B.False


78. "Golfscapes" are both leisure and amenity landscapes.
A.True
B.False


79. According to David Lowenthal, places are collections of similar structures where nothing is unique.
A.True
B.False


80. One of the most pervasive symbols of the urban and suburban Anglo-American popular landscape since the 1800s is the vegetable garden.
A.True
B.False


81. A rapid rise in "desert front" yards in Arizona occurred with the influx of rural Anglos in the 1950s.
A.True
B.False


82. Desert fronts are suitable only in arid environments.
A.True
B.False



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