Index of Memorial Resolutions and Biographical Sketches

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Robert Morse Crunden, professor of American studies and history at The University of Texas at Austin, died suddenly at home on March 23, 1999, after suffering a heart attack. For more than 30 years he played a major role in the development of the University’s American studies and American civilization programs (later the Department of American Studies). He earned wide respect as a cultural historian for his understanding of the "climates of creativity" animating American artistic, literary, and political movements in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. As one of the first Americans to hold a Fulbright chair at a foreign university, he helped define the duties and opportunities of such appointments. His vigorous intellect, his tireless dedication as a scholar and teacher, and his generosity as a colleague have indelibly marked the fields of American studies and history at the University and beyond.

Robert M. Crunden was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, on December 23, 1940. His sister recalls that Bob excelled in intellectual pursuits even as a young boy. Reading and writing were his passions. During summers at the family home in Nova Scotia he spent long hours sitting quietly with his books. From an early age he was fiercely independent and relished a good argument on almost any topic. He entered Yale College as a freshman in 1958 and received a BA magna cum laude in 1962. While still an undergraduate, he collaborated with his grandfather on the writing of a self-published mystery, A Chicago Winter’s Tale (1960). He devoted his senior thesis to the journalist and cultural critic Albert J. Nock, in whom he discovered a kindred spirit. He internalized Nock’s reverence for high culture, his devotion to good writing, his role as a skeptical curmudgeon, and his self-conscious identification as a conservative. But conservatism for Bob Crunden was not necessarily a matter of politics. As he later wrote in the introduction to his anthology of writings by The Superfluous Men: Conservative Critics of American Culture, 1900-1945 (1977), conservatism involved "an assumption about which areas of life are generally rewarding for the intelligent person to concentrate upon." For him, those areas encompassed the life of the mind and the study of those who had devoted their own lives to it. With the encouragement of his grandfather, he published his thesis as The Mind and Art of Albert J. Nock in 1964.

After graduating from Yale, Bob entered the graduate program in the history of American civilization at Harvard University, where he studied with Frank Freidel. He received a PhD in 1967 for a dissertation on the Progressive reformer and novelist Brand Whitlock, a study he published two years later as A Hero in Spite of Himself: Brand Whitlock in Art, Politics and War. This project set the tone for much of his later work as a scholar. In examining Whitlock’s varied career as a reformer, politician, diplomat, and novelist, the young graduate student trooped across disciplinary boundaries and came to appreciate the significance of the biographical. Although his study of Whitlock proved to be his only full-scale biography, throughout his career he employed and perfected a methodology that involved juxtaposing short biographies of carefully selected individuals as a means of discovering and presenting the tensions, conflicts, and meanings of a particular historical moment.

Soon after completing graduate study, Bob Crunden received an invitation to join the faculty of the University for the fall 1967 semester. William H. Goetzmann, who had taught him as an undergraduate at Yale, recruited him to assist in revitalizing the American studies program and to teach courses in American cultural and intellectual history. These were boom years at the University, and Bob later recalled the free-wheeling social life of young assistant professors in the humanities–many of them "exiles" from the Northeast struggling to adapt to Austin’s "laid-back" atmosphere. For many years he anchored the undergraduate American studies major with a two-semester survey course, "Main Currents of American Culture," which was famous for wry sarcasm, pithy anecdotes, unprecedented note-taking challenges, and a refusal to consider public university students any less capable than those of elite private colleges. Eventually he adapted these lectures for publication as A Brief History of American Culture (1990), which appeared in several editions in English and was translated into Arabic, Korean, Portuguese, and Spanish. In addition to the introductory survey, he taught undergraduate seminars on the Progressive era and on religious, political, intellectual, and art history–with perhaps his most popular course, sometimes offered as a Plan II seminar, being "The Artist in American Society," an interdisciplinary examination of painting, sculpture, music, and literature considered through the biographical approach he had developed in his scholarship.

Students in graduate seminars found Bob Crunden a demanding instructor. He regularly taught a required first-semester American studies seminar in which students learned to deconstruct recent works in cultural, social, and intellectual history long before the concept of deconstruction became commonplace. Over the years he also offered seminars in the American conservative tradition, the artist in American life, Southern history through literature, and modernism as a cultural paradigm. He gave good hard advice to everyone, never minced words when judging student work, offered his own intellectual life as a model, and considered his courses a form of initiation. Many graduate students thrived under this rigorous discipline. Some of them recognized that his formidable exterior concealed a shy man who was often warm, helpful, even sentimental. Their appreciation for his many talents appears in the fact that he supervised more than 20 PhD dissertations and 30 MA theses in American studies and history. He also served on scores of additional graduate committees in those two departments and in such disciplines as English, government, and art history.

Bob Crunden was also known for Herculean dedication to departmental and University-wide administration and governance. He served as graduate adviser in American studies from 1969 to 1976 and as director of the American studies program from 1985 to 1990. Always forthright in stating his views, he won both praise and criticism for his policies and built the program into a department in all but name (official recognition came in 1998). From 1990 until his death, he continued to influence American studies by serving as chair of the graduate studies committee and overseeing the graduate admissions process. In the Department of History, he served on many committees, especially those involved with hiring and promotion. Bob’s comments were often sharp, but they were almost always on the mark. The reputations of both departments, American studies and history, owe much to Bob Crunden’s unrelenting devotion to hard work and high professional standards. As a history colleague observed at his memorial service, "Bob always kept us honest."

Colleagues often marveled at his ability to maintain an energetic research and writing agenda while tirelessly mentoring students and continually taking the pulse of undergraduate and graduate curricula. They were impressed by the apparently omnivorous quality of his reading, by the depth of his knowledge in diverse areas ranging from the music of Charles Ives to the literatures of the British Commonwealth countries. Even so, his published work remained squarely in the cultural and intellectual history of the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. As noted above, his scholarly method focused on shared climates of creativity revealed through group biographies of individuals active in diverse intellectual and cultural practices at a particular historical moment. He first experimented with this approach, which was influenced by the psychohistorical writings of Erik Erikson, in From Self to Society, 1919-1941 (1972). That work traced changing interpretations of the relationship between the individual and society from the Progressives’ feelings of common identity, through the alienation of the 1920s, to the communitarianism of the 1930s. He expanded the scope of this biographical method in Ministers of Reform: The Progressives’ Achievement in American Civilization, 1889-1920 (1982) and employed it in two subsequent books, American Salons: Encounters with European Modernism, 1885-1917 (1993) and Body and Soul: The Making of American Modernism (2000).

Conceived as a trilogy exploring ambivalent American responses to the condition of modernity, all three of these works displayed a talent for broad synthesis of a dazzling array of disciplines and figures. In Ministers of Reform, Crunden traced the transformation of traditional Protestant morality into the Progressive activism of such varied figures as Jane Addams and Woodrow Wilson and explored the formally innovative but ideologically conservative expressions of such artists as Charles Ives and Frank Lloyd Wright. The second volume, American Salons, explored early expressions of American modernism by iconoclasts such as James Whistler and Henry James, who rejected the jingoism and boosterism of the Progressives and tended to look to Europe for inspiration. Underlying the book was an assumption that urban life, as opposed to the rural and small-town backdrop of Progressivism, was essential to the rise of modernism. The final volume in the trilogy, the posthumously published Body and Soul, is a sweeping cultural history of the rise of a truly American modernism in the 1920s. Rooted in jazz and inspired by American urban life rather than that of Europe, this second-generation modernism encompassed the music of Jelly Roll Morton, Louis Armstrong, Ethel Waters, and George Gershwin; the art of Georgia O’Keefe and Paul Strand; and the writings of Gertrude Stein, Langston Hughes, and John Dos Passos. Taken together, these three volumes inscribe an arc that would have been followed, had Crunden lived to write it, by a fourth volume on the collective mind of the 1930s.

In addition to writing these ambitious books, Bob Crunden also edited several volumes. He joined Frank Freidel and Norman Pollack in editing the second edition of their anthology, Builders of American Institutions: Readings in United States History (1972). Previously mentioned, The Superfluous Men offered an idiosyncratic portrait of the American conservative intellectual tradition in primary sources ranging from George Santayana to Walter Lippmann. Crunden also edited two anthologies of scholarly essays: New Perspectives on America and South Asia (with Manoj Joshi and R. V. R. Chandrasekhar Rao, 1984) and The Traffic of Ideas Between India and America (1985).

The latter two collections derived from symposia Crunden organized at the American Studies Research Centre in Hyderabad, India, where he served as director for two academic years, from 1982 to 1984. This Fulbright position exemplified his dedication to the international American studies movement. While in residence in Hyderabad, he supervised the Centre’s operations, taught courses, organized conferences, expanded the library, edited the Indian Journal of American Studies, lectured extensively at other universities, offered advice on curricular development, and inspired a generation of Americanists.

The shape of his activities in India owed much to prior experience as the inaugural holder of the Bicentennial Chair in American Studies at the University of Helsinki, Finland, in 1976-1977. As perhaps the first person appointed to a Fulbright chair anywhere, Crunden defined the multifarious duties now routinely expected of such appointees. He succeeded so well that he was invited to return to Helsinki in the same capacity in 1991-1992. Among many professional honors, he was especially proud of his election to the Finnish Academy (Suomen Tiedeakatemia) in 1997. He was also pleased that his general text, A Brief History of American Culture, which he had prepared as an introduction for foreign students, was first published in Finland. Dedicated to the importance of internationalizing the field of American studies, Bob relished any opportunity to teach outside the U.S. and enjoyed welcoming foreign scholars to Austin–inviting them to stay with him, helping them navigate the University’s libraries, and encouraging their research. He also served as a visiting professor in American studies at the University of Würzburg, Germany, in 1979 and again in 1982, and as a senior Fulbright lecturer at La Trobe University in Australia in 1978.

Despite Professor Crunden’s well-deserved reputation for acerbity, his closest academic relationships were with graduate students and junior faculty. Bob was a consummate listener and editor. He was gifted with the ability to recognize and clarify the key points of an uncertain or disorganized argument. Numerous scholars, both at the University and elsewhere, owe some of the success of their publications and possibly their tenure to Bob’s willingness to pore over their prose and help transform it into clear English. Because of this talent, he was also in constant demand as a book reviewer and outside manuscript reader (though authors also awaited with considerable trepidation his frank, sometimes sarcastic, notices). Bob liked few things better than to champion an unknown but well-conceived and well-written manuscript, especially one at political or ideological odds with his own opinions. One of the few things he did enjoy more was to talk with a group of graduate students and colleagues over a pitcher of beer. Whether he was probing the Progressives’ contributions to American civilization or the dynamics of modernist salons in London and Paris, or the roots of jazz or the movies, or the failures of American foreign policy, or the ideas that animated a social movement or an aesthetic milieu, Bob made brilliant and broad syntheses. As a colleague observed, "he was a one-man climate of creativity, bringing out the best in everyone who let him touch their minds."

Throughout Bob’s life, the family home in Nova Scotia offered a refuge from Austin summers and from the demands of teaching and advising. Reading and writing alternated in a simple rhythm with chopping wood, boating, and making repairs. Physically active throughout the year, Bob was known for his daily swim at Barton Springs and for walking to and from the University in any weather. He threw himself into everything he did–swimming, writing, teaching, parenting, mentoring, attending chamber concerts and movies, debating students and colleagues, holding forth on just about anything. He refused to own a television and acquired hundreds of phonograph albums, mostly classical and jazz, including a collection of Scandinavian composers so unique that the Fine Arts Library was pleased to accept its donation after his death.

Bob had no tolerance for obfuscatory prose but infinite patience for reading children’s books to his young daughters. He had strong opinions on just about everything, including the value of integrity, scholarship, and friendship. He was one of those elemental individuals about whom everyone had a strong opinion one way or the other. By his example, Bob Crunden challenged and provoked everyone around him–an experience for which the vast majority remain grateful. His survivors include his mother Marjorie Morse Crunden and sister Joan Crunden Lewis, both of Boulder, Colorado; and daughters Wendy Eberle-Sinatra of Toronto, Canada, and Evelyn Ann and Rebecca Joan Crunden of Austin, Texas.


Larry R. Faulkner, President
The University of Texas at Austin


John R. Durbin, Secretary
The General Faculty


This memorial resolution was prepared by a special committee consisting of Professors Jeffrey L. Meikle (chair), Shelley Fisher Fishkin, and Neil Foley.



Allan B. Crunden and Robert Morse Crunden, A Chicago Winter’s Tale (New York: Vantage Press, 1960), 224pp.

The Mind and Art of Albert Jay Nock (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1964), 230pp.

A Hero in Spite of Himself: Brand Whitlock in Art, Politics and War (New York: Knopf, 1969), 479pp.

From Self to Society, 1919-1941 (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972), 212pp.

Builders of American Institutions: Readings in United States History, 2nd ed., ed. Frank Freidel, Norman Pollack, and Robert Crunden (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1972), 2vol.

Progressivism, by John D. Buenker, John C. Burnham, and Robert M. Crunden (Cambridge: Schenkman, 1977), 152 pp. ("Essay," pp. 71-103; "Rejoinder," pp. 107-111).

ed., The Superfluous Men: Conservative Critics of American Culture, 1900-1945 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977; Bryn Mawr: Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1999), 284pp.

Ministers of Reform: The Progressives’ Achievement in American Civilization, 1889-1920 (New York: Basic Books, 1982; Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984), 307pp.

New Perspectives on America and South Asia, ed. Robert M. Crunden, Manoj Joshi, and R.V.R. Chandrasekhar Rao (Delhi: Chanakya, 1984), 239pp.

ed., Traffic of Ideas Between India and America (Delhi: Chanakya, 1985), 378pp.

A Brief History of American Culture (Helsinki: Suomen historiallinen seura, 1990), 284pp.

Uma breve historia da cultura americana (Rio de Janeiro: Nordica, 1990), 348pp.

American Salons: Encounters with European Modernism, 1885-1917 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 493pp.

A Brief History of American Culture (New York: Paragon House,1994), 363pp.

Introducción a la historia de la cultura norteamericana (Bogotá: El Áncora Editores, 1994), 445pp.

Brief History [Arabic] (Amman: Dar-Al-Ahlieh, 1995), 413pp.

Brief History [Korean] (Seoul, 1996), 438pp.

A Brief History of American Culture (New York: North Castle Books, 1996), 363pp.

Body and Soul: The Making of American Modernism (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 475pp.


"Freud, Erikson, and the Historian: A Bibliographical Survey," Canadian Review of American Studies 1973 4(1): 48-64.

"George D. Herron in the 1890s: A New Frame of Reference for the Study of the Progressive Era," Annals of Iowa 1973 42(2): 81-113.

"Charles Ives’ Innovative Nostalgia," Choral Journal 1974 15(4): 5-12.

"Charles Ives’ Place in American Culture," in H. Wiley Hitchcock and Vivian Perlis, eds., An Ives Celebration (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977), pp. 4-13.

"Yhdysvaltain historian opetus ja kirjallisuus Suomessa [teaching the literature of American history in Finland]," in Markku Henriksson, ed., Amerikan Yhdysvaltain historian koulukunnista ja kirjalli-suudesta (Helsinki: Helsingin yliopisto, 1977), 27 pp.

"Nykyaikaisen amerikkalaisen konservatismin ääriviivat [parameters of modern American conservatism]," Kanava 1978 (2): 4 pp.

"Intellektuellien maastamuutto [emigration of the intellectuals]," Kanava 1979 (2): 10 pp.

"Rockefellerit ja rahan mahti [the Rockefellers and the power of money]," Kanava 1979 (7): 4 pp.

"Neokonservatismin kehitys Yhdysvalloissa [development of neoconservatism in the United States]," Kanava 1980 (6): 349-353.

"A History of American History," Indian Journal of American Studies 1982 12(2): 3-34.

"Modernin amerikkalaisen runouden alkuvaiheet [early years of modern American poetry]," Kanava 1982 (8): 496-498.

"The Impact of Feminism on American Historiography," Indian Journal of American Studies 1983 13(2): 3-8.

"A Joshua for Historians," WLWE (World Literature Written in English) 1983 22(2): 235-254.

"Ralph Ellison’s New World Symphony," Indian Journal of American Studies, 1983 13(1): 45-54.

"Yhdysvaltain historiankirjoitus [historiography of the United States]," in Päivi Setälä, Pekka Suvanto, and Matti Viikari, eds., Historiankirjoituksen historia (Helsinki: Gaudeamus, 1983), pp. 252-279.

"A Diplomacy of Inadvertence: The Larger Context of America’s Postwar Asian Policy," in Crunden, Joshi, and Rao, eds., New Perspectives on America and South Asia, pp. 3-32.

"The Intellectual Background," introduction to special issue, "From the 1950s to the 1960s: A Major Transition in American Culture," Indian Journal of American Studies 1984 14(2): 5-9.

"William James and a World of Pure Experience," Indian Journal of American Studies 1986 16(1): 3-26.

"The First Year of the Chair, 1976-7," in Markku Henriksson, Irene Himberg, and Jukka Tiusanen, eds., Ten Years of American Studies: The Helsinki Experience (Helsinki: Suomen historiallinen seura, 1987), pp. 13-24.

"Martin Luther Kingin muuttuva kuva [the changing image of Martin Luther King]," Kanava 1991 (7): 395-400.

"William F. Buckley Jr. ja Yhdysvaltain konservatismin monihaaraiset juuret [William F. Buckley, Jr., and the many roots of American conservatism]," Kanava 1992 (1): 395-400.

"Oliver Stonen mielikuvitusmaailma [the imaginary world of Oliver Stone]," Kanava 1992 (3): 168-170.

"Amerikan uusi sosiaalihistoria [America’s new social history]," Historiallinen Aikakauskirja 1993 91(4): 307-310.

"Kokonaiskuva presidentti Reaganista selkeytyy [overall picture of President Reagan becomes clearer]," Kanava 1993 (2): 92-96.

"Pros and Cons of Life in a Foreign University," in Richard P. Horwitz, ed., Exporting America: Essays on American Studies Abroad (New York: Garland Reference Library, 1993), pp. 115-128.

"Brandeis: A Comment," American Jewish History 1994 81(3-4): 428-431.

"The Enigma of Boston in the Coming of American Modernism," Journal of Contemporary Thought 1995 1: 71-104.

"Yhdysvaltain turvallisuuspolitiikka: McNamara, Kissinger, Shultz [U.S. politics of security]," Kanava 1995 (5): 279-287.

"Scott Fitzgerald’s Jazz Age," Katatiya Journal of English Studies 16 (Dec 1996) 89-105.

"On Charles Ives," Modernism/Modernity, 1997 4(3): 154-159.

"Psychoanalysis, Gender and School Reform in the Salon of Mabel Dodge, 1913-1917," in Marjatta Hietala, Jarmo Oikarinen, and Hannele Virtala, eds., Arvot, analyysi, tulkinta (Helsinki: Suomen Historiallinen Seura, 1997), pp. 211-229.

"Movement without Migration: The Physiology of the City in Dos Passos’ Manhattan Transfer," in Jeffrey Kaplan, Mark Shackleton, and Maarika Toivonen, eds., Migration, Preservation, and Change: Articles Based on the Seventh Maple Leaf and Eagle Conference on North American Studies at the University of Helsinki, May 14-17, 1998 (Helsinki: Renvall Institute, 1999), pp. 181-186.

"Eugene O’Neill’s Jungian Impulses," in Mikko Saikku, Maarika Toivonen, and Mikko Toivonen, eds., In Search of a Continent: A North American Studies Odyssey: Festschrift in Honor of Professor Markku Henriksson’s 50th Anniversary (Helsinki: Renvall Institute for Area and Cultural Studies, 1999), pp. 275-293.

Sound Recording

Literature, Pleasure, and Power (Research Triangle Park, NC: National Humanities Center, 1988), side B, interview and discussion recorded July 24, 1988.

Book Reviews

David M. Potter, The South and the Sectional Conflict (1968), in Social Science Quarterly 1970 51(3): 777.

Joseph A. Mussulman, Music in the Cultured Generation: A Social History of Music in America, 1870-1900 (1971), in Yearbook for Inter-American Musical Research 1971 7: 129-133.

Frank R. Rossiter, "Charles Ives and American Culture: The Process of Development, 1874-1921," PhD dissertation, Princeton University, 1970, in Yearbook for Inter-American Musical Research 1972 8: 181-185.

Christopher Lasch, Haven in a Heartless World: The Family Besieged (1977), in Modern Age 1978 22(3): 329.

Irving Kristol, Two Cheers for Capitalism (1978), in Modern Age 1978 22(4): 432-433.

Donald F. Crosby, S.J., God, Church and Flag: Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and the Catholic Church (1978), in Modern Age 1979 23(2): 203-204.

George H. Douglas, H. L. Mencken: Critic of American Life (1978), in Modern Age 1980 24(2): 217-218.

Lois Parkinson Zamora, ed., The Apocalyptic Vision in America: Interdisciplinary Essays on Myth and Culture (1982), in Indian Journal of American Studies 12 (July 1982) 115-119.

Irving Howe, A Margin of Hope: An Intellectual Autobiography (1982), in Indian Journal of American Studies 13 (January 1983) 140-144.

William D. Miller, Dorothy Day: A Biography (1982), in Indian Journal of American Studies 13 (July 1983) 199-202.

Rosalind Rosenberg, Beyond Separate Spheres: Intellectual Roots of Modern Feminism (1982), in Indian Journal of American Studies 13 (July 1983) 202-205.

Jay Fliegelman, Prodigals & Pilgrims: The American Revolution against Patriarchal Authority, 1750-1800 (1982); Karen Halttunen, Confidence Men and Painted Women: A Study of Middle-Class Culture in America, 1830-1870 (1982); Leslie Fishbein, Rebels in Bohemia: The Radicals of The Masses, 1911-1917 (1982); Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, Hannah Arendt: For Love of the World (1982); and S. Frederick Starr, Red and Hot: The Fate of Jazz in the Soviet Union 1917-1980 (1983); in Indian Journal of American Studies 1984 14(1): 136-144.

James K. Lyon, Bertolt Brecht in America (1980); Ronald Sanders, The Days Grow Short: The Life and Music of Kurt Weill (1980); Robert Károly Sarlós, Jig Cook and the Provincetown Players: Theatre in Ferment (1982); John Russell Taylor, Strangers in Paradise: The Hollywood Emigres, 1933-1950 (1983); and F. Richard Thomas, Literary Admirers of Alfred Steiglitz (1983); in Indian Journal of American Studies 14 (July 1984) 207-214.

Sam Bass Warner Jr., Province of Reason (1984), in American Historical Review 90 (April 1985) 501.

Marc Chénetier and Rob Kroes, eds., Impressions of a Gilded Age: The American Fin de Siècle, in Amerikastudien/American Studies 1985 30(2): 283.

David W. Levy, Herbert Croly of The New Republic: The Life and Thought of an American Progressive (1985), in Journal of American History 72 (December 1985) 715-716.

David C. Duke, Distant Obligations: Modern American Writers and Foreign Causes (1983), in Indian Journal of American Studies 1986 16(1): 121-123.

Richard Slotkin, The Fatal Environment: The Myth of the Frontier in the Age of Industrialization, 1800-1890 (1985), in Technology and Culture 28 (October 1987) 859-860.

James T. Kloppenberg, Uncertain Victory: Social Democracy and Progressivism in European and American Thought, 1870-1920 (1986) and Paul Edward Gottfried, The Search for Historical Meaning: Hegel and the Postwar American Right (1986), in Canadian Review of American Studies 1987 18(4): 507-510.

Peter M. Rutkoff and William B. Scott, New School: A History of the New School for Social Research (1986), in Historian 50 (February 1988) 309.

Jack Salzman, ed., American Studies: An Annotated Bibliography (1986), in Journal of American Folklore 74 (March 1988) 1426-1427.

David B. Danborn, "The World of Hope": Progressives and the Struggle for an Ethical Public Life (1987), in American Historical Review 93 (April 1988) 510.

Lawrence A. Cremin, American Education: The Metropolitan Experience, 1876-1980 (1988), in Reviews in American History 16 (December 1988) 652-656.

Alice Goldfarb Marquis, Hopes and Ashes: The Birth of Modern Times, 1929-1939 (1986), in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 113 (January 1989) 131-132.

John C. Burnham, Paths into American Culture: Psychology, Medicine and Morals (1988), in Journal of Interdisciplinary History 20 (Autumn 1989) 325-327.

Sean Dennis Cashman, America in the Age of the Titans: The Progressive Era and World War I (1988), in Journal of American History 76 (December 1989) 965.

Niels Aage Thorsen, The Political Thought of Woodrow Wilson, 1875-1910 (1988), in American Historical Review 95 (February 1990) 288-289.

Sue Bridwell Beckham, Depression Post Office Murals and Southern Culture: A Gentle Reconstruction (1989), in Journal of Southern History 57 (May 1991) 353-354.

David Glassberg, American Historical Pageantry: The Uses of Tradition in the Early Twentieth Century (1990), in Reviews in American History 1991 19(4): 463-467.

J. David Hoeveler Jr., Watch on the Right: Conservative Intellectuals in the Reagan Era (1991), in Journal of American History 78 (March 1992) 1529-1530.

August Heckscher, Woodrow Wilson (1991), in American Historical Review 98 (February 1993) 267.

George Cotkin, Reluctant Modernism: American Thought and Culture, 1880-1900 (1992), in American Studies 1993 34(2): 137-139.

Michael Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory: The Transformation of Tradition in American Culture (1991), in Journal of Southern History 59 (May 1993) 326-327.

Michael E. Parrish, Anxious Decades: American in Prosperity and Depression, 1920-1941 (1992), in Journal of American History 1993 80(3): 1131-1132.

Stanley Coben, Rebellion Against Victorianism: The Impetus for Cultural Change in 1920s America, in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1993 35(4): 874-875.

Mary Kupiec Cayton, Elliott J. Gorn, and Peter W. Williams, eds., Encyclopedia of American Social History, in Social Science Quarterly 1994 75(1): 222-223.

Edward A. Stettner, Shaping Modern Liberalism: Herbert Croly and Progressive Thought (1993), in Journal of American History 1994 81(1): 311-312.

William Leach, Land of Desire: Merchants, Power and the Rise of a New American Culture (1993), in Historian 1994 56(4): 754-755.

Russell Kirk, America’s British Culture (1993), in Libraries & Culture 1995 30(1): 111-112.

Lawrence J. Oliver, Brander Matthews, Theodore Roosevelt, and the Politics of American Literature, 1880-1920 (1992), in American Studies 1995 36(1): 193-194.

Ernst A. Breisach, American Progressive History: An Experiment in Modernization, in Clio 1995 24(2): 227-228.

Fred Hobson, Mencken: A Life (1994), in American Historical Review 1995 100(4): 1313-1314.

Philip J. Ethington, The Public City: The Political Construction of Urban Life in San Francisco, 1850-1900 (1994), in Journal of Interdisciplinary History 1996 27(1): 155-156.

Dickran Tashjian, A Boatload of Madmen: Surrealism and the American Avant-Garde, 1920-1950 (1995), in American Historical Review 1996 101(5): 1522-1523.

Robert Wuthnow, Poor Richard’s Principle: Recovering the American Dream through the Moral Dimension of Work, Business, and Money (1996), in Reviews in American History 1997 25(2): 189-193.

Jan Swafford, Charles Ives: A Life with Music, in Modernism/Modernity 1997 4(3): 154-159.

Richard Wightman Fox and James T. Kloppenberg, eds., A Companion to American Thought (1995), in Journal of American History 1997 83(4): 1364-1365.

Steven J. Diner, A Very Different Age: Americans of the Progressive Era, in Journal of American History 1998 85(2): 701-702.

Jackson Lears, Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America, in American Historical Review 1998 103(3): 958-959.

David R. Contosta, Philadelphia’s Progressive Orphanage: The Carson Valley School (1997), in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 1999 123(3): 228-229.

Daniel T. Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age (1998), in The Historian 2000 62(3): 706-707.