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Policy Memorandum 1.301

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Method of Election

All-University elections and elections for colleges or schools having two or more elective representatives shall use the election method prescribed below. Colleges or schools having only one elective representative shall use a method determined by the Secretary of the General Faculty. All voting shall be by secret ballot, either electronically or by mail.

a. Nominating or primary election. In an election in which one or two seats are to be filled, a voter shall nominate in the primary election no more than one candidate. In an election in which more than two seats are to be filled, the voter shall nominate no more than two candidates. (In the selection of the all-University representatives, up to two names chosen from a group consisting of assistant professors and instructors with voting membership in the General Faculty and up to two names from a group consisting of associate professors and professors shall be nominated by each voter.) The persons receiving the highest number of nominations shall be the candidates for the final election. At least two names shall be presented for each place, unless, in the judgment of the Secretary and consistent with fairness and the spirit of these rules, there is a practical reason for a different number.
b. Final election. The following preferential voting process, the Hare-Clark System, a version of the Hare System, shall be followed in the final election of all-University representatives.
1. The final ballot and the casting of the vote.
a. On the final ballot the names of the nominees shall be either in alphabetical order or in random order (that is, with all orderings equally likely). In all-University elections there shall be two separate and distinct ballots, one for candidates nominated from the group of instructors and assistant professors, and the other for the candidates nominated from the group of associate professors and professors. Each voter shall record his or her choices for the positions to be filled in order of preference, the number "1" indicating first choice, "2" second choice, and so on, through all of the voter's choices.
2. Determining the results.
a. Electoral quota. An electoral quota, q, shall be computed as follows: If n denotes the number of ballots cast and p denotes the number of positions to be filled, then q shall be the greatest whole number (positive integer) not exceeding (n/(p + 1)) + 1. That is, if (n/(p + 1)) + 1 is a whole number, then that whole number is q; otherwise, q is (n/(p + 1)) + 1 rounded down to a whole number
b. Initial step. The initial vote for a candidate shall be the number of first choices for the candidate.
c. Any candidate whose vote equals or exceeds the electoral quota, q, shall be elected. If p of the positions are filled after this step, the process is complete.
d. Subsequent steps. If the process is not complete at the end of the preceding step, then it shall continue by repeatedly transferring ballots (votes) among candidates according to rules (e) and (f) which follow. When rule (e) is applied, the weight of each transferred ballot will be decreased as described in (e). Thus, after the initial step, at which each ballot has a weight of one, a candidate's vote total need not be a whole number.
If the process continues beyond the initial step, it will be complete when either (i) all of the positions have been filled by transfers using (e), or (ii) the number of candidates who have not been eliminated using (f) equals the number of positions to be filled, at which point the candidates not eliminated are elected.
e. Transfers from elected candidates. After any step in which a candidate has been elected with v (q or more) votes, determine the surplus, s = v - q, of votes for that candidate. (If v = q, then proceed to the next paragraph.) Multiply the weight of each of the candidate's ballots by s/v, and then transfer each such ballot to the candidate who is the next choice on the ballot. If the next candidate has been either elected or eliminated, go to the next choice, and so on until, if possible, reaching a candidate who has been neither elected nor eliminated; then add the weight of the ballot to that candidate's total vote.
When the preceding step has been completed for each previously elected candidate, return to step (c) if any candidate is newly elected, and otherwise go to step (f).
f.  T ransfers to eliminate candidates. After the initial step or any application of step (e) in which no candidate is newly elected, the remaining candidate with the least number of votes shall be eliminated. (In the event of two or more candidates with the same least number of votes, use (g) which follows.) Each of the eliminated candidate's ballots shall be transferred to the candidate who is the next choice on the ballot; if the next choice has been either elected or eliminated, go to the next choice, and so on until, if possible, reaching a candidate who has been neither elected nor eliminated; then add the weight of the ballot to that candidate's total vote. Now return to step (c).
g. Ties. If a tie occurs at any point in the process, the choice or choices shall be made in such a way that the candidates who are tied have equal chances of being selected.
h. Preferential ranking. For the purpose of filling vacancies, the preferential ranking of candidates not elected shall be the reverse of the order in which the candidates were eliminated in the election process, that is, the last candidate eliminated shall be the first preferential choice, and so on.

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  Updated 2013 February 22
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