What was the last Japanese movie you saw? Chances are it was “Spirited
Away,” the largest grossing movie ever to come out of Japan,
or maybe it was “Princess Mononoke,” another very popular
film. The better question may be, “What was the last live-action
Japanese movie you saw?”
That’s because more than half of all movies and television
programs produced in Japan are animation, or anime as it is better
known. But these are not the cartoons of your youth—they are
often sophisticated, sometimes violent and frequently have adult
themes. You won’t find the likes of Betty and Barney Rubble
in these films. Instead, you’ll see complex stories including
love, growing up and female empowerment.
Dr. Susan Napier says that teaching an anime
class is a unique pedagogical experience. She stands next
to a character from “My Neighbor Totoro” (1988)
directed by Hayao Miyazaki.
Dr. Susan Napier, the Mitsubishi Professor of Japanese Studies
in the Department of Asian Studies in the College of Liberal Arts,
first chanced upon these stories a dozen years ago when a student
showed her a Japanese comic book, or manga. Rather than the children’s
entertainment she expected, Napier found herself drawn into an intricate
story line and richly detailed art.
“This student showed me a manga called ‘Akira,’”
she said. “It was a groundbreaking manga that was later turned
into anime and started a tidal wave. The artwork was beautiful—very
dark and set in a post-apocalyptic future. That alone was so very
different from my favorite Superman comics.”
Not too much later, Napier happened to be in London when the anime
“Akira” was released there.
“I was just amazed,” she said. “I loved animation
as a kid, but this was very different from any Disney animation
I had ever seen. It was just superb, but darker and the music was
very intense—it was an extraordinary, almost visceral experience.
So much more sophisticated than I ever dreamed.”
Seeing this film led her to write a paper to present at a conference
on Japanese popular culture, which in turn led to writing her third
book, “Anime: from Akira to Princess Mononoke” (Palgrave
Macmillan), a book that was published in 2001. The book is in its
fourth edition and already has been translated into Japanese, and
will soon be translated into Korean.
“When I first presented at this conference, about half of
the audience—those over 40—was unimpressed and somewhat
disturbed,” she said. “They were asking why I was wasting
my time on this. The other younger half was very interested because
they too had students coming to them to discuss it. I’ve found
that it is such a huge subject, there are lots of interesting ways
to approach it.”
Certainly, anime has made its place in the hearts of American children
with shows such as “Pokemon” and “Dragonball Z,”
but its popularity hardly ends at adolescence. Napier is working
on a book about anime fans and what it is about anime that resonates
with people of all ages and cultures.
“When I ask people why they like anime one of the first things
they say is because it is different,” Napier said. “They
usually mean the animated style, the music, more adult content with
challenging themes and more complex stories. In the old days you
wouldn’t have Archie and Jughead dealing with the apocalypse.”
Though the films are animated, Napier said that people often say
that the stories feel more real than Hollywood cinema.
“You don’t always have a happy ending,” she said.
“In America, we’ve had this desire for resolution—the
guy and girl get married and go off into the sunset with everything
tied up with a little bow at the end. Of course, real life is not
necessarily like that—one of the things that fascinates me
is when people say anime is more real than Hollywood film. They
are saying animated work is more real than live action through the
psychology of the stories, and the characters deal with things in
a way that is more real. In the case of anime, it doesn’t
always work out. Sometimes the hero is left wandering or dead, and
doesn’t get the girl or the guy. I think that especially for
young adults who are dealing with a difficult world, it is strangely
comforting to not see the Hollywood ending, but one they can identify
Anime’s reach goes well beyond Japan and the U.S.—a
glance at a schedule of anime festivals turns up events in Costa
Rica, Poland, Brazil, France and Germany to name a few.
“At this point, it is the only real alternative to American
popular culture,” Napier said. “What is fascinating
is that—in an almost stealth operation—Japanese popular
culture is huge. Not just anime and manga, but also things like
Hello Kitty and video games. This is really making inroads into
worldwide popular culture. It’s very exciting to think that
a very distinctive culture like Japan could have such an impact
on the rest of the world.”
But why animation, instead of live action film? It’s all
about the money.
“It’s very hard to compete with Hollywood,” Napier
said. “Japan has a great cinematic tradition with Kurosawa
and Oshima—they were world-class directors. But they are from
the past. In the 1960s, as Hollywood geared up, the Japanese film
industry started to lose ground and couldn’t compete with
the money in Hollywood. A lot of very talented people who may have
gone into film, went into anime because is was so much cheaper to
produce, and there was steady work for it in television.”
jump to anime also makes sense when you look at the Japanese tradition
of mangas and graphic novel storytelling. It was an easy transition
from printed cartoon storytelling to animation.
“You have the manga tradition which is very important—in
Japan you see adult men and even older women reading manga in a
way that we don’t in America,” Napier said. “You
had a comfort level with cartoons, and then not being able to compete
with Hollywood blockbusters, it’s almost inevitable that talented
and original people would move into anime, where television was
a very ready market. Then in the 1970s, you had television anime
directors crossing into films and becoming very popular, and it
created a snowball effect. You see a very different career path
for talented, artistic people than you would in America.”
While anime does have its own visual style, one component of that
style is the lack of national, racial and sometimes even gender,
distinction in the characters. The characters generally do not have
the facial characteristics of the Japanese, or any other nationality
for that matter.
“One thing that heartens me about this new world we are living
in, is that with animation you don’t have to look a certain
way,” she said. “You are no longer in a representational
world where you have to be a white female or a Hispanic male—all
of a sudden you can be anything you like. Everyone can enjoy this
animated world where we have the freedom to choose any identity
One thing noticeably different about Japanese anime versus American
productions is the abundance of female protagonists. In addition
to the very popular and mainstream “Spirited Away,”
and “Princess Mononoke,” females are the central players
in other series and films such as “Ghost in the Shell,”
“Vampire Princess Miyu” and “Revolutionary Girl
“There is a tremendous number of anime and manga that star
female protagonists,” Napier said. “A lot of people
appreciate seeing a strong female character doing things, taking
an active role in helping the world and having an interesting and
But why is it so popular in Japan—a very patriarchal society?
Napier believes you have to look at the country’s past as
well as its place in today’s cultural landscape.
“Hayao Miyazaki (director of ‘Spirited Away”’and
‘Princess Mononoke’) definitely likes to use female
characters,” she said. “He has said that it makes the
story line more interesting than if you use an archetypical male
hero—it can be fresher and more original.
“I think there may be a deeper subtext, a fascination with
the female character as it represents modern Japan,” she added.
“Throughout Japanese culture the female principle has been
very important. Early Japanese novels were written by women, which
is very unusual, and their female protagonists were very important.
If you look at folklore, there are many strong female characters,
both good and bad. I think to some extent Japan often identifies
itself in more of a female way, despite having a patriarchal culture.
has an abundance of female protagonists.
“Over the last couple of decades, there has been more interest
in the woman—the young girl in particular, I think this may
be a reflection of Japan’s unease with itself and where it
is going,” Napier said. “I wonder if it is a projection
about what it is to be Japanese in the end of the 20th and beginning
of the 21st century, particularly in a film like ‘Spirited
Away.’ I don’t think it’s any accident that it’s
a young girl pictured; I think it is these girls who are seen as
representing the Japanese psyche. I think one reason it may resonate
in America is that we are also wondering where we’re going,
who we are—not just female audiences but male audiences as
well. It may be that we connect with the more vulnerable, less fixed
kind of character of a girl rather than a boy who is more determined.
A girl can explore things more and I think both male and female
audiences can respond to that.”
According to Napier, teaching an anime class is a unique pedagogical
“It’s more intense than anything I’ve ever done—which
is great on one hand but exhausting on the other,” she said.
“What surprises me is that students are invested in the subject
in a way that I’ve never seen before.”
She said the discussions with students are much more lively than
most classes because many of the students have been watching since
childhood and they are dedicated fans of anime.
“It’s hard sometimes to keep a balance in the classroom,”
she said. “I’m a fan, too, and I present myself that
way, but I’m also a scholar and I can’t always love
anime all the time. For many of them it’s entertainment, and
some of them are disturbed that I’m looking at it from a theoretical
point of view. They feel like I’m taking away their pleasure
because I’m forcing them to look at things. Some people really
enjoy that aspect and I’ve had them come up and say, ‘Thank
you for helping me justify why I love this so much, for helping
me explain why it is complex and it’s worth taking seriously.’
But others say, ‘Gosh, Professor Napier, you have too much
time on your hands. What are you doing reading all of this into
it—it’s just popular culture?’
“It’s been an interesting experience and I feel more
invested in it, too,” she said. “I love my literature
courses, but it doesn’t involve the same level of commitment
from the students. While I have some authority since I’ve
written a book, the students have their own form of authority because
they will have watched every episode of a show and they’ll
have watched it four times. I can’t compete with that, and
I don’t try. I let them know up front that it’s not
all anime all the time, but that it is a course in which we talk
about themes and structure and aspects of popular culture. I hope
that I’m showing them that they can approach their favorite
thing in a different way. They may not like that, but I think that
it will percolate down to them that these are subjects worthy of
discussion on a fairly high intellectual level.”
Special thanks to Momoko,
705 West 24th Street,
for photo opportunities.
Banner graphic shows scene
from “My Neighbor Totoro” (1988)
directed by Hayao Miyazaki.