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Center for Women in Law - Women’s Power Summit on Law & Leadership

Summit Speakers

The Summit features speakers from a variety of backgrounds, each bringing a different perspective on how to advance the position of women within the legal profession.



Keynote Speakers

photo of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor

The Honorable Sandra Day O’Connor
Justice, United States Supreme Court (ret.)

Justice Sandra Day O’Connor holds the great distinction of being the first woman justice to sit on the Supreme Court. She received her B.A. (with Great Distinction) and LL.B., Order of the Coif, from Stanford University. She was also part of the Board of Editors for Stanford Law Review. During her legal career, she served as Deputy County Attorney of San Mateo County, California from 1952–1953 and as a civilian attorney for Quartermaster Market Center, Frankfurt, Germany from 1954–1957. From 1958–1960, she practiced law in Maryvale, Arizona, and served as Assistant Attorney General of Arizona from 1965–1969.

She was appointed State Senator in Arizona in 1969 and was subsequently reelected to two two-year terms, serving in the Arizona State Senate from 1969 to 1975; Senate Majority Leader in 1972-75; served as Chairman of the State, County, and Municipal Affairs Committee in 1972 and 1973; also served on the Legislative Council, on the Probate Code Commission and on the Arizona Advisory Council on Intergovernmental Relations. In 1975 she was elected Judge of the Maricopa County Superior Court and served until 1979, when she was appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals by Governor Bruce Babbitt. President Reagan nominated her as an Associate Justice the United States Supreme Court on July 7, 1981; she confirmed by the United States Senate on September 22, 1981 and took the oath of office on September 25, 1981. Justice O’Connor retired from the Supreme Court on January 31, 2006.

Justice O’Connor’s many civic activities include: Member, Executive Board, ABA Central European and Eurasian Law Initiative, 1990-present; member, Board of Trustees, Rockefeller Foundation, 2006-present; Chancellor, College of William and Mary, 2005-present; member, Advisory Board, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, 2006-present; member, ABA Commission on Civic Education and Separation of Powers, 2005-present; member, Executive Committee, ABA Museum of Law, 2000-present; member, Advisory Commission, ABA Standing Committee on the Law Library of Congress, 2002-present; member, Advisory Committee, American Society of International Law, Judicial, 2001-present; honorary chair, America’s 400th Anniversary: Jamestown 2007, 2006-present; co-chair, National Advisory Council, Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools, 2005-present; member, Selection Committee, Oklahoma City National Memorial & Museum, 2005-present; member, Advisory Board, Stanford Center on Ethics, 2005-present. She also holds membership with following organizations: American Bar Association, State Bar of Arizona, State Bar of California, Maricopa County Bar Association, Arizona Judges’ Association, National Association of Women Judges, Arizona Women Lawyers’ Association.

Justice O’Connor was born in El Paso, Texas. She married John Jay O’Connor III in 1952 and has three sons.

Photo of Anna Deavere Smith

Anna Deavere Smith
Playwright, Actor & Professor, New York University

As an actor, playwright and teacher, Anna Deavere Smith has built a remarkably wide-ranging and respected career. Her work, which explores the American character and our multifaceted national identity, has been acclaimed by the media, critics and audiences across the country.

As playwright and performer, Ms. Smith has created a series of ongoing theatrical works over the past 19 years which she calls On The Road: A Search for American Character. Fires In The Mirror: Crown Heights, Brooklyn And Other Identities, explored the 1991 clash between Jews and Blacks in that New York community. The play was the runner-up for the 1993 Pulitzer Prize and earned Ms. Smith an Obie and numerous other awards. Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992, examined the civil unrest following the Rodney King verdict, received critical acclaim on Broadway and in Los Angeles. Ms. Smith received two Tony nominations for Twilight, as well as an Obie, a Drama Desk Award, a Special Citation from the New York Drama Critics, two NAACP Theatre Awards, and numerous other honors.

Ms. Smith’s play, House Arrest, explores the mythic role that the presidency has played throughout American history. As part of her preparation for House Arrest, Ms. Smith spent time both in Washington, D.C. and on the 1996 campaign trail, talking with a wide range of political players, historians, journalists and others. She attended both the Democratic and Republican conventions and wrote about them for Newsweek magazine. Ms. Smith also had the opportunity to interview former Presidents Clinton, George HW Bush and Carter.

Ms. Smith’s book, Talk to Me: Listening Between the Lines, is based on her observations and impressions of her time in Washington and on the road. Her newest book is Letters to a Young Artist: Straight-up Advice on Making a Life in the Arts — For Actors, Performers, Writers and Artists of Every Kind. Her other books include publications of her plays Fires in the Mirror, Twilight, House Arrest, and Piano. Smith’s articles and other writings have appeared in such publications as The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, Newsweek, The New Yorker, O Magazine, A Public Space, Essence, and The Drama Review.

In 1997, Smith became the Ford Foundation’s first Artist-in-Residence. During this time, and with funding from Ford, Smith founded and directed the Institute on the Arts & Civic Dialogue, a three-year experiment that was held from 1998-2000, at Harvard University. Ms. Smith has been awarded honorary degrees from Northwestern, Smith, Bryn Mawr, Wesleyan, Holy Cross, and Cooper Union (forthcoming). Currently she is a tenured professor in the Tisch School of the Arts at New York University and she is affiliated with the NYU School of Law. Prior to this, she was the Ann O’Day Maples Professor of the Arts at Stanford University where she taught from 1990 – 2000. She has also taught at Carnegie Mellon, and the University of Southern California, and from 2001 - 2004, was Artist-in-Residence at MTV Networks.

In film, Smith has played roles in Ivan Reitman's Dave, Jonathan Demme's Rachel Getting Married and Philadelphia, Peter Berg's The Kingdom, Robert Benton’s The Human Stain, Christopher Columbus’ Rent, and Rob Reiner's The American President. On television, she played National Security Advisor Nancy McNally on NBC’s The West Wing and appeared in a recurring role in the acclaimed ABC series, The Practice. She also co-starred in the CBS drama, Presidio Med, a series by the award-winning producing-writing team of NBC’s ER.

Her most recent play Let Me Down Easy, premiered at the Long Wharf Theatre in January 2008. Its subject is the resilience and vulnerability of the human body. The play was inspired by Ms. Smith’s visiting professorship at the Yale School of Medicine, where she presented a performance for medical ground rounds called Rounding It Out (2000). As part of her preparation for Let Me Down Easy, Smith traveled to Rwanda to interview survivors of the Genocide and to Uganda and South Africa to do research on the effects of the AIDS pandemic. She also interviewed victims of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans.

A native of Baltimore, she currently lives in New York City, where she is on the board of the Museum of Modern Art and chairs the museum’s Committee on Film.

Photo of Ann Fudge

Ann Fudge
Chairman & CEO, Young & Rubicam Brands (ret.), Chair, Gates Foundation U.S. Program Advisory Board, Rockefeller Foundation Board of Directors

Ann Fudge is Former Chairman and CEO of Young & Rubicam Brands, a global network of pre-eminent companies across the full range of marketing communications. Prior to Young & Rubicam Brands, Ms. Fudge served as President, Beverages, Desserts and Post Division – a $5 billion unit of Kraft Foods. Before joining General Foods, she spent nine years at General Mills, where she began as a Marketing Assistant and rose to the level of Marketing Director.

She serves on the Board of Directors of General Electric and Novartis. She is on the Harvard Board of Overseers, the Board of Morehouse College, and is a trustee of the Brookings Institution. Ms. Fudge also serves on the Boards of the Rockefeller Foundation, the Council on Foreign Relations, and is Chair of the U.S. Program Advisory Panel for the Gates Foundation. She was a recipient of the NY Executive Council’s Ten Awards, given for leadership and innovation in business and was named one of Time Magazine’s Global Business Influentials.

Ms. Fudge has received the Matrix Award for Advertising from New York Women in Communication. Among her other honors are Leadership Awards from the Minneapolis and New York City YWCA, an Alumni Achievement Award from Harvard Business School, a Lifetime Achievement Award from Ebony magazine, and a Legacy Award in Business from Black Enterprise magazine. She has been profiled in Black Enterprise, Business Week and The New York Times, among others and named by Fortune magazine as one of the 50 most powerful women in American business.

Ms. Fudge received her BA from Simmons College and her MBA from Harvard University Graduate School of Business. Ms. Fudge is married and has two sons and four grandchildren.

Photo of Marie C. Wilson

Marie C. Wilson
Founder and President of The White House Project, co-creator of Take Our Daughters and Sons to Work ® Day, past President of the Ms. Foundation, and author of Closing the Leadership Gap: Why Women Can and Must Help Run the World

An advocate of women’s issues for more than 30 years, Marie C. Wilson is Founder and President of The White House Project, co-creator of Take Our Daughters and Sons to Work ® Day and author of Closing the Leadership Gap: Why Women Can and Must Help Run the World (Viking 2004).

In 1998, Wilson founded The White House Project in recognition of the need to build a truly representative democracy – one where women lead alongside men in all spheres. Since its inception, The White House Project has been a leading advocate and voice on women’s leadership. Before she took the helm at The White House Project, Wilson was, for nearly two decades, the President of the Ms. Foundation for Women. She is an honorary “founding mother” of the Ms. Foundation. In honor of her work, the Ms. Foundation has created The Marie C. Wilson Leadership Fund.

Over the last thirty years, Wilson’s accomplishments span becoming the first woman elected to the Des Moines City Council as a member-at-large in 1983, co-authoring the critically acclaimed Mother Daughter Revolution (1993, Bantam Books), and serving as an official government delegate to the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing, China in 1995.

Wilson has been profiled in The New York Times “Public Lives” column, has appeared on The Today Show, Good Morning America, CNN, National Public Radio and other national programs and is quoted widely for her expertise. Born and raised in Georgia, Wilson has five children and four grandchildren. She resides in New York City.

Summit Chair

Photo  of Diane C. Yu

Diane C. Yu
Chief of Staff and Deputy to the President of New York University

Diane C. Yu is Chief of Staff and Deputy to the President at New York University, the nation’s largest private university. Her portfolio mirrors that of the President as his surrogate, advisor, and alter ego in dealings with NYU Trustees, deans, faculty, students, and the University Senate. She also teaches a freshman honors seminar on leadership in the College of Arts and Science and is the Executive Director of the Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Scholars Program, part of the recently launched NYU-Abu Dhabi Institute. Previously, she was the Associate General Counsel and Managing Counsel at Monsanto Company, General Counsel for the State Bar of California, a California Superior Court Commissioner, and a White House Fellow appointed by the President. She has argued and won over 30 cases in the California Supreme Court and one case in the U.S. Supreme Court.

A national bar leader and frequent speaker and writer, she is the Immediate Past President of the White House Fellows Association Board and on the boards of the American Management Association and Executive Committee of the Oberlin College Board. She has been active in the American Bar Association and was the first woman of color to chair the American Bar Association’s Commission on Women in the Profession and first Asian American to chair any Section or Division of the ABA (the Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar). She helped found the National Asian Pacific American Bar Association, the Asian Bar of California, and the Missouri Asian American Bar Association. Yu has received many awards and honors, including Ten Outstanding Young Women of America, an honorary doctor of laws from the City University of New York, the Trailblazer Award from the National Asian Pacific American Bar Association, and the Missouri Woman Justice Award.

Ms. Yu received her B.A. from Oberlin and J.D. from the University of California (Boalt Hall School of Law in Berkeley), and was awarded a Doctor of Laws (honoris causa) from the City University of New York.

Speakers

Linda L. Addison
Partner, Fulbright & Jaworski and Founder, Center for Women in Law

Linda L. Addison, a Founder of the Center for Women in Law, is a partner in Fulbright & Jaworski L.L.P., where she serves as a member of the firm’s Executive Committee and as Partner-in-Charge of its New York office. Described by Lawdragon as “one of the nation’s smartest, most respected litigators,” she was named one of the “50 Most Influential Women Lawyers in America” by the National Law Journal in 2007 and one of only 17 women among the “100 Most Influential Lawyers in America” by the National Law Journal in 2006. After conducting its own research and asking hundreds of attorneys “who they would turn to–based on firsthand knowledge–if they needed representation in particular practice areas,” in 2007 the Texas Lawyer named Linda the number one “Go To Lawyer” in commercial litigation.

Honored as the United Way of the Texas Gulf Coast 2006 Woman of the Year, she serves on the U.S. Commission for the Preservation of America’s Heritage Abroad and on the boards of the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Foundation and Holocaust Museum Houston. She is a member of the Advisory Board of Northern Trust Bank. She was named 2008 Outstanding Alumnus of the University of Texas School of Law. She will be honored with the ABA Commission on Women’s prestigious Margaret Brent Women Lawyers of Achievement Award at the ABA Annual meeting in 2009.

Hannah Brenner
Executive Director, Center for Women in Law

Hannah Brenner is the first Executive Director of the Center for Women in Law at the University of Texas School of Law, a new initiative designed to confront the barriers that stand in the way of women’s advancement in the legal profession. Under her leadership, the Center’s members will advocate for significant and lasting changes both in law and in the practice of law.

She came to UT last Fall from the University of Oklahoma, where she worked as the Director of Women’s Leadership Programs at the Carl Albert Congressional Research and Studies Center. There, her work focused on addressing the historical under-representation of women in politics and public service. Under her leadership, the Center facilitated two major statewide programs, the annual National Education for Women’s Leadership conference, and the Pipeline to Politics initiative. At OU, Hannah also taught in the Department of Women’s Studies; her courses included, among others, Women and the Law and Women Creating Social Change. In 2006, her course, Gender, Power & Leadership, received recognition and funding as a prestigious University Presidential Dream Course, incorporating special guest lecturers such as former Vermont Governor Madeline Kunin, and Former New Jersey Governor, Christine Todd Whitman.

Originally from the suburbs of Chicago, Hannah received her BA from the University of Iowa in Women’s Studies and American Studies. As an undergraduate, she served on the Department of Women’s Studies Faculty Steering Committee, working alongside faculty in the development of a PhD program in the discipline. She furthered her academic interests in women’s issues as a student in the Antioch College Women’s Studies Program Abroad. Hannah completed her law degree at University of Iowa College of Law where she received recognition for academic achievement and public interest work. Throughout law school, she was involved with the creation of the Journal of Gender, Race & Justice, and continued to play an active volunteer role in the anti-sexual violence movement.

Hannah’s research interests include law, politics, activism, and women’s rights. Her professional background includes serving as executive director of the Oklahoma Appleseed Center for Law and Justice and director of the Women’s Outreach Center at the University of Oklahoma. In 2004, after her volunteer grant writing resulted in the award of significant grant funding from the Oklahoma State Department of Health, Hannah returned to the Appleseed Law Center for one year to coordinate the new Oklahoma Bullying Prevention Initiative, a coalition of nonprofit state organizations working to influence policy and ultimately reduce school bullying/harassment and its related problems like poor academic performance, high risk of future incarceration and suicide. She is frequently called on to provide consultation to and engage in grant-writing for nonprofit organizations.

Hannah resides in Austin with her husband Adam, a professor whose work involves the merger of science and art, and their three children, Isaac, Aidan, and Willow.

Mary Cranston
Senior Partner (former managing partner), Pillsbury

Mary B. Cranston is the Firm Senior Partner and immediate past Chair of Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman LLP. In her eight years as Chair, Ms. Cranston expanded the firm from a regional California base into an international platform through two large mergers and the addition of seven offices. Other strategic initiatives included a comprehensive client service program ranked by Fortune 1000 General Counsel in the top five in the world, and innovative programs to increase diversity. The firm was one of three law firms ranked in the top 100 companies in the U.S. for working mothers.

Ms. Cranston is an expert in complex class action litigation, antitrust counseling and litigation, regulated industries counseling and litigation, and securities litigation. She has litigated over 300 class actions in state and federal courts and is an expert on class action procedural and trial issues and all aspects of class action settlements.

Ms. Cranston has been named one of “The 100 Most Influential Lawyers in America” by the National Law Journal, one of two “Best Law Firm Leaders in the United States” by Of Counsel, and one of the “Top 100 Lawyers in California” by the San Francisco Daily Journal and the Los Angeles Daily Journal. She has been profiled as “One of the Best Female Antitrust Lawyers in the World” by Global Competition Review. For the past eight years, she has been included in the San Francisco Business Times List of the Most Influential Women in Bay Area Business, and in 2004, she received the Athena Award given to the outstanding Bay Area business woman for lifetime achievement. In 2005, Ms. Cranston was the recipient of the Margaret Brent Award, the American Bar Association’s highest award for women lawyers given for legal excellence and for paving the way for other women lawyers. She currently serves on both public company and nonprofit boards, including the boards of VISA, Juniper Networks, Stanford University and Catalyst.

Ms. Cranston holds a J.D. from Stanford Law School where she was a member of the Law Review. She also holds an M.A. from the University of California at Los Angeles and an A.B. from Stanford University, where she graduated Phi Beta Kappa and with distinction.

Karen Hirschman
Partner, Vinson & Elkins & Founder, Center for Women in Law

With more than 25 years handling major commercial disputes, Karen is a top-rated litigator with extensive trial experience. She is particularly skilled at defending auditors, issuers, directors and officers in securities fraud class actions and M&A litigation, and in representing professionals in accounting and legal malpractice matters. Karen’s extensive trial experience includes numerous cases tried in state and federal courts in Texas and other jurisdictions. She has also handled significant arbitration matters in Texas and beyond. Chambers USA named her as one of America’s leading business lawyers in securities litigation in 2006, 2007, and 2008.

Karen has played an active leadership role at Vinson & Elkins since joining the firm as partner in 1999. She has served on the practice management committee, the partnership admission committee, as section head for Dallas litigation, and as head of pro bono for the Dallas office. With Marie Yeates and Brenda Strama, Karen is a founding member of the Vinson & Elkins Women’s Initiative. Currently, Karen serves on V&E’s Management Committee and is chairman of the firm's Talent Management Committee and Women's Initiative.

Karen received a B.A. with high honors (Phi Beta Kappa) from the University of Delaware, an M.A. from the University of Texas at Austin, and a J.D. from the University of Texas School of Law with honors (Order of the Coif; Chancellors; Note and Research Editor, Texas Law Review, 1982 - 1983). She was a Judicial clerk to The Honorable H. Barefoot Sanders, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas and admitted to practice: Texas, 1983; Washington, D.C., 2002; New York, 2003; United States Supreme Court; U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third and Fifth Circuits; U.S. District Court for the Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Districts of Texas; U.S. District Court of Colorado.

Lisa Horowitz
President, National Association of Women Lawyers

Lisa Horowitz is President of the National Association of Women Lawyers, a professional organization which since 1899 has been committed to promoting the interests and advancement of women lawyers and women’s legal rights. NAWL members come from all fifty states and include individual law firm lawyers, in-house counsel, law school professors, law schools, law firms and in-house legal departments. Ms. Horowitz is Senior Manager of Professional Development at McDermott Will & Emery LLP where she designed and now implements the firm’s comprehensive professional development system for associates and partners. She is Vice-Chair of McDermott’s Associate Development Committee and a member of the firm’s Gender Diversity Committee.

A summa cum laude graduate of Tufts University, Ms. Horowitz received her J.D with Honor from The National Law Center, George Washington University and her Master of Science in Organizational Development & Human Resources from Johns Hopkins University. She is a member of the District of Columbia Bar and practiced federal procurement law in Washington D.C. for 18 years. She also served on the D.C. Bar’s Law Practice Management Steering Committee. She is liaison to the American Bar Association Commission on Women in the Profession. Ms. Horowitz regularly coaches attorneys on career planning and business development and is a frequent external speaker on organizational development and career and leadership development issues.

Lorraine Graw
Law Student, University of Texas College of Law

Lorraine Graw is a third year student at the University of Texas School of Law. After graduation, she will be clerking for the Honorable Alan M. Ahart in Los Angeles. Lorraine serves as the student representative appointed to the Faculty Appointment Committee for the School of Law, where she endeavors to bring more diversity to the Law School's outstanding faculty. Also, Lorraine is the managing editor for the Texas International Law Journal, the fourth oldest international law journal in the nation, devoted to promoting awareness of international issues. She has previously worked as an extern for the Ninth Circuit Bankruptcy Appellate Panel in Pasadena, and at the Australian litigation firm of Slater & Gordon. Prior to law school, Lorraine worked at a private equity firm in Dallas, Texas.

Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison
United States Senate

In 1993, Texans elected Kay Bailey Hutchison to the United States Senate in a special election, making her the first -- and, to date, the only -- woman elected to represent the state in the Senate. One year later, she was re-elected to a full six-year term. In 2000, she received more votes for her re-election to a second full term than any other statewide candidate had ever received. And in 2006, she was again re-elected by an overwhelming margin. Senator Hutchison is the Senior Republican on the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Additionally, she is on the Appropriations Committee and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Senator Hutchison has also served in the Senate leadership, having been elected by her colleagues to be Chairman of the Republican Policy Committee during the 110th Congress. Senator Hutchison is a member of the Republican National Hispanic Assembly (RNHA) National Advisory Committee, and she is Chairman of the West Point Board of Visitors.

In 2008, Senator Hutchison authored an amicus curiae brief for the Supreme Court case DC v. Heller, affirming an individual’s right to keep and bear arms. Her brief was signed by the Vice President of the United States and by more members of Congress than any other brief in U.S. history.

Senator Hutchison grew up in La Marque, Texas and graduated from the University of Texas and UT School of Law. She was twice elected to the Texas House of Representatives. In 1990, she was elected Texas State Treasurer. In June 2000, she and several colleagues coauthored Nine and Counting: The Women of the Senate, and in 2004, she released her second book, American Heroines: The Spirited Women Who Shaped Our Country. Senator Hutchison published her most recent bestseller, Leading Ladies: American Trailblazers, in October 2007. She lives in Dallas with her husband and their two children.

The Hon. Carolyn Dineen King
Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the 5th Cir.

Carolyn Dineen King is a Circuit Judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Judge King is a native of Syracuse, New York. She graduated from Smith College summa cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa in 1959 and from Yale Law School in 1962. Following her graduation from law school, Judge King moved to Houston where she was engaged in the private practice of law, principally with Fulbright & Jaworski, until 1979, focusing primarily on corporate and federal securities law. She was appointed by President Jimmy Carter to the Fifth Circuit in 1979. Judge King was the Chief Judge of the Fifth Circuit from January 1999 through January 2006. Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist appointed Judge King to be a member of the Executive Committee of the Judicial Conference of the United States, which governs the federal court system, in 2000 and to chair that Committee from 2002 through 2005.

Judge King is a member of the Council, and of the Council’s Executive Committee, of The American Law Institute and was an adviser to the Restatement of the Law Third - Torts: Products Liability and to the Transnational Insolvency Project. She has been active in many human services, educational and health-related organizations in Houston and is currently serving as a member of the Boards of Baylor College of Medicine and of South Texas College of Law. Judge King is a recipient of the Smith College Medal, the American Bar Association’s Margaret Brent Award, and the federal judiciary’s highest award, the 2007 Edward J. Devitt Distinguished Service to Justice Award. She has been awarded honorary degrees from Syracuse University and the University of St. Thomas.

Judge King is married to fellow Circuit Judge Thomas M. Reavley. She has three sons and one granddaughter.

Catherine Lamboley
General Counsel, Shell Oil Company (ret.) and Founder, Center for Women in Law

Catherine Lamboley, retired Sr. Vice President and General Counsel of Shell Oil Company, is a native of Monroe, Wisconsin. Cathy graduated from the University of Wisconsin with a secondary education degree and from the University of Texas School of Law where she graduated Order of the Coif. Cathy joined Shell in 1979, and, with the exception of three years as Vice President of Commercial Marketing in Shell’s Oil Products business, she spent her career in the Shell Legal organization.

Issues concerning opportunity and inclusiveness have long been the focus of her professional and civic activities. Cathy’s commitment is reflected by her participation as a member of the Board of the Minority Corporate Counsel Association and as a past Chair of the Board of Directors, her service on the American Bar Association’s Racial and Ethnic Diversity Commission and her current service on the Commission on Women in the Profession, and her participation on the Texas Supreme Court’s Gender Bias Task Force Implementation Committee. She is a founder and member of the Executive Committee of the Center for Women in Law, University of Texas School of Law. Among the honors the Shell Legal organization received in recognition of its commitment to opportunity and inclusiveness while Cathy was General Counsel are the American Corporate Counsel Association’s Diversity Award, the Minority Corporate Counsel Association’s Employer of Choice Award, and the Coalition of Bar Associations of Color Corporate Diversity Award.

Cathy is also a member of the American Law Institute, has served on the Board of Directors for the University of Houston Law Foundation, and currently serves on the University of Texas Law School Foundation Board. Recognizing that access to legal assistance for all is critical to our society, Cathy served on the Texas Access to Justice Commission’s Committee of Corporate General Counsel, the Houston Bar Foundation’s Board of Directors, and she is a past Chair of the Corporate Advisory Committee of the National Legal Aid and Defender Association.

Cathy cites her American Leadership Forum experience as invaluable in strengthening her leadership skills and civic commitment. Cathy is a Senior Fellow of the ALF and Chairs its Board of Trustees. Cathy is a past Chair of the Board of the Houston Area Women’s Center, served on the Board of the United Way of the Texas Gulf Coast, and was an original member and Chair of the United Way Women’s Initiative. She served on the Board of Advisors for Catalyst, a national non-profit research and advisory organization working to advance women in business, and currently serves on the Houston Arts Alliance Board.

Among the honors she has received are the Anti-Defamation League Southwest Region’s Jurisprudence Award, American Bar Association’s Commission on Women in the Profession’s Margaret Brent Women Lawyers of Achievement Award, The Texas General Counsel Forum Magna Stella Award, the United Way of the Texas Gulf Coast’s Woman of the Year, and the Texas Executive Women’s “Woman on the Move.”

Ilene Lang
President & CEO, Catalyst, Inc.

Ilene H. Lang is the President & Chief Executive Officer of Catalyst, the leading research and advisory organization working with businesses and the professions to build inclusive workplaces and expand opportunities for women and business. She was appointed President in August 2003 and named Chief Executive Officer in September 2008.

Ms. Lang brings energy and corporate savvy to the advancement of women in every sector of the global marketplace. Her expertise on the advancement of women in corporations and professional firms, corporate boards and governance, workforce demographic trends, the business case for women’s career development, innovative strategies for retaining and advancing women, and work-life effectiveness is often called upon by the media, member companies and firms, and other organizations. She regularly addresses national and international groups of senior leaders in a variety of business, academic, and public policy venues.

Having broken barriers in her own career, Ms. Lang is broadly recognized as a pioneering female high-tech/Internet executive. She was the founding CEO of AltaVista Internet Software Inc., a subsidiary of Digital Equipment Corporation. Prior to that work, Ms. Lang was Senior Vice President of the Desktop Business Group at Lotus Development Corporation, responsible for a $500 million business. She has also advised CEOs and entrepreneurs as a board member, coach, and investor in women-led technology companies. Ms. Lang currently serves on the Board of Directors of Art Technology Group, Inc., an enterprise software company. She was named to the Global Agenda Council on the gender gap at the World Economic Forum, and she is a member of the National Board Development Committee of the Girl Scouts of the USA. She has served on numerous other corporate, private, and nonprofit boards in the past.

Ms. Lang earned an A.B. degree in history and literature from Radcliffe College and an M.B.A. from the Harvard Business School. She is married and the mother of three adult children.

Roberta C. Liebenberg
Chair, American Bar Association Commission on Women in the Profession

Roberta Liebenberg is a member of Fine, Kaplan and Black. She is a 1970 graduate of the University of Michigan and a 1975 graduate of the Catholic University Columbus School of Law, magna cum laude, where she was the Notes Editor of the Law Review. Thereafter, she served as a law clerk for the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. She concentrates her practice in complex commercial litigation, including antitrust, class actions and white-collar criminal defense.

Ms. Liebenberg is the recipient of the 2008 Sandra Day O'Connor Award by the Philadelphia Bar Association. This award is conferred annually on a woman attorney who has demonstrated superior legal talent, achieved significant legal accomplishments, and has furthered the advancement of women in both the profession and the community. In May 2007, Ms. Liebenberg was named as one of The National Law Journal's "50 Most Influential Women Lawyers in America." In June 2008, she was named as one of the "Top Ten Super Lawyers in Pennsylvania" in Philadelphia Magazine, the only woman to receive this designation. In October 2006, Ms. Liebenberg was named by Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell as a "Distinguished Daughter of Pennsylvania." In April, 2003, she was named as the first recipient of the Lynette Norton Award by the Pennsylvania Bar Association's Commission on Women in the Profession. That award was given to her in recognition of her outstanding litigation skills and mentoring of women attorneys. In December 2003, she was named as one of the "Women of Distinction" by the Philadelphia Business Journal and the National Association of Women Business Owners, based on her commitment to professional excellence and community involvement. Every year since 2004, she has been recognized by Philadelphia Magazine as one of the "Top 50 Female Super Lawyers in Pennsylvania" and one of the "Top 100 Super Lawyers in Pennsylvania." Ms. Liebenberg was named one of the "Women Leaders in the Profession" by The Legal Intelligencer. She was recognized as a leader in the field of Class Actions.

In 2008, Ms. Liebenberg was appointed as Chair of the American Bar Association's Commission on Women in the Profession, whose first Chair was Senator Hillary Clinton. She was appointed by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court to the Interbranch Commission for Gender, Racial and Ethnic Fairness, and serves as Chair of its Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Victims Committee.

Ms. Liebenberg served as Chair of the American Bar Association's Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary from 2006-2007. Prior to that appointment, she served as the Third Circuit representative on the Standing Committee from 2005-2006. In 2007, Ms. Liebenberg was elected as the Pennsylvania State Delegate to the ABA House of Delegate. From 2003 to 2005, Ms. Liebenberg was a member of the Board of Governors of the American Bar Association, representing Pennsylvania and New Jersey. In addition, she served on the Governing Council of the American Bar Association's Section of Litigation and was the Section's Delegate to the House of Delegates. She also served as Chair of the Class Actions and Derivative Suits Committee of the Litigation Section. Ms. Liebenberg chaired the Philadelphia Bar Association's Antitrust Committee from 2002-2007 and 1993-1997.

The Hon. Barbara M.G. Lynn
United States District Court, Northern District of Texas

Barbara M. G. Lynn took the oath of office as a United States District Judge for the Northern District of Texas on February 14, 2000. A summa cum laude graduate of the University of Virginia, Judge Lynn graduated first in her class at Southern Methodist University School of Law in 1976. Upon her graduation from law school, she joined the Dallas law firm of Carrington, Coleman, Sloman & Blumenthal, LLP, and remained there until she took the bench. She was named a partner in the firm in 1983 and served on the firm’s executive committee from 1983 to 1999.

Judge Lynn served as the 1998-1999 Chair of the American Bar Association’s 60,000 member Section of Litigation, and received SMU Law School’s Distinguished Alumni Award for private practice in 1999. She was the first recipient of the Louise Raggio award given by the Dallas Women Lawyers Association for her contributions to the profession. She was listed in the Best Lawyers in America in Business Litigation from 1994-99 and was designated by the National Law Journal in 1998 as one of the 50 most influential women attorneys in the country. In 2004, Judge Lynn was recognized as Judge of the Year by the Dallas Chapter of the American Board of Trial Advocates. In 2006, she was recognized by the Women and the Law Section of the State Bar of Texas as the Sarah T. Hughes Woman Lawyer of Achievement.

Judge Lynn is Chair of the Committee on the Administration of the Bankruptcy System of the Judicial Conference of the United States, Past Chair of the Federal Trial Judges Conference of the ABA Judicial Division and Chair of the ABA Judicial Division. She is President of the Dallas Chapter of the International Womens Forum. She has been an Adjunct Professor and member of the Executive Board at SMU’s Dedman School of Law, is a Fellow and former Committee Chair of the American College of Trial Lawyers, and is a member of the American Law Institute.

Judge Lynn is married and has two daughters.

William Powers Jr.
President, The University of Texas at Austin

William Powers Jr. is the 28th president of The University of Texas at Austin. Before taking office on February 1, 2006, he served as dean of the university's School of Law. As one of the nation's leading scholars in personal injury and products liability, President Powers joined the law school faculty in 1977 and has taught torts, products liability, jurisprudence, legal process, civil procedure, conflict of laws and contracts. In 1997, the university named him to its Academy of Distinguished Teachers. He is a University Distinguished Teaching Professor and holds the Hines H. Baker and Thelma Kelley Baker Chair in Law.

A native of Los Angeles, President Powers received his bachelor's degree in chemistry from the University of California at Berkeley in 1967. After graduating, he joined the U.S. Navy and was stationed on Bahrain Island in the Persian Gulf. Following his military service, he attended Harvard Law School, where he became managing editor of the "Harvard Law Review" and graduated magna cum laude in 1973. He taught at the University of Washington Law School before coming to The University of Texas at Austin in 1977.

He is the author of dozens of articles on tort law and legal philosophy and of several books, including “Cases and Materials in Products Liability” (with David Fischer, Michael Green and Joseph Sanders), “Cases and Materials in Torts” (with David Robertson, David Anderson and Olin Guy Wellborn) and “Texas Products Liability Law.” He is a member of the American Law Institute, where he was co-reporter for the “Restatement (Third) of Torts: Apportionment of Liability” and is co-reporter for the “Restatement (Third) of Torts: Liability for Physical Harm.” President Powers has worked as a legal consultant with the U.S. Congress, the Brazilian legislature and the Texas legislature. In 2001, he chaired a special investigation committee that examined the financial transactions of Enron Corp. The resulting report, which has come to be known as the “Powers Report,” and his subsequent testimony before Congress, gained national recognition.

He is married and has five children.

Arin N. Reeves
The Athens Group

Arin Reeves has worked with diversity and inclusion in organizations for over fifteen years. She received her J.D. from University of Southern California and her Ph.D. in Sociology from Northwestern University. In her practice as a consultant on diversity issues, she has personally worked with over one hundred law firms, almost 50 Fortune 500 companies, dozens of universities and law schools, as well as various bar associations/trade organizations.

Prior to her founding the The Athens Group, Ms. Reeves gained valuable experience in the areas of discrimination conflict resolution, and organizational effectiveness as an attorney practicing in the state of Illinois. Ms. Reeves’ work with The Athens Group focuses primarily on diversity and inclusion issues within the legal profession, corporations and educational institutions. She has also served as an Adjust Professor at Northwestern University where she taught classes on law and society.

Ms. Reeves currently serves on the ABA Center for Radical and Ethnic Diversity, the umbrella organization for all of the ABA’s racial and ethnic diversity entities. She has also served as a Council Member on the ABA Presidential Advisory Council on Diversity and she was a Commissioner on the ABA Commission on Women (2003-2006) where she co-chaired the Women of Color Research Initiative. She has also served as the Chair of the Chicago Bar Association’s Special Commission on Diversity.

Ms. Reeves is a Fellow of Leadership Greater Chicago, and she serves on the Boards of Directors for various community organizations in Chicago. She lives in Chicago with her husband and her two children.

Deborah L. Rhode
Ernest W. McFarland Professor of Law, Stanford University Law School

Deborah Rhode is the Ernest W. McFarland Professor of Law and the Director of the Center on the Legal Profession at Stanford University. Her teaching and research focuses on gender inequality and legal ethics. She is the former president of the Association of American Law Schools, the former chair of the American Bar Association’s Commission on Women in the Profession, the former founding director of Stanford’s Center on Ethics, a former trustee of Yale University, and the former director of Stanford’s Institute for Research on Women and Gender. She also served as senior counsel to the Minority members of the Judiciary Committee, the United States House of Representatives, on presidential impeachment issues during the Clinton administration. She is the most frequently cited scholar on legal ethics and writes for general as well as scholarly audiences in leading academic journals and in newspapers and magazines including The New York Times and Ms. She is a regular columnist for the National Law Journal.

Professor Rhode graduated Phi Beta Kappa and summa cum laude from Yale College and received her legal training from Yale Law School. After clerking for Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, she joined the Stanford faculty. She is the author or coauthor of twenty books and over 200 articles.

Her recent books concerning gender include Women and Leadership: The State of Play and Strategies for Change (with Barbara Kellerman, 2007); Gender and Law: Theory, Doctrine, Commentary (with Katharine T. Bartlett, 2006); The Difference “Difference” Makes: Women and Leadership (2003), and Speaking of Sex (1997). Her book on appearance discrimination, The Injustice of Appearance, is forthcoming from Oxford University Press.

Veta T. Richardson
Executive Director, Minority Corporate Counsel Association

Veta T. Richardson was named the Executive Director of the Minority Corporate Counsel Association in January 2001. She also serves as the Director of Publications for MCCA's magazine, Diversity & the Bar, which is published bimonthly and distributed to a global circulation base of more than 35,000 corporate attorneys. MCCA's mission is to advocate for the expanded hiring, promotion, and retention of minority attorneys by corporate law departments and the law firms that serve them. Since its founding in 1997, MCCA has emerged as a knowledge leader on diversity issues in the legal profession, and its expanded platform addresses diversity management issues involving women, physically challenged, and gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) lawyers, in addition to lawyers of color (which remains its primary focus).

Prior to joining MCCA, Ms. Richardson was vice president and deputy general counsel of the Association of Corporate Counsel and in-house counsel to Sunoco, Inc. in Philadelphia, PA, where her practice focus was corporate governance, transactions, securities and finance. She has been recognized for diversity leadership by a number of organizations, including the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Black Law Students Association, National Minority Business Council, Association of Corporate Counsel, Bar Association of the District of Columbia and the Asian American, Korean American, and South Asian Bar Associations of New York. She received a B.S. in Business Management from the University of Maryland at College Park and a J.D. from the University of Maryland School of Law.

Lauren Rikleen
Executive Director, the Bowditch Institute for Women’s Success and Partner, Bowditch & Dewey

Lauren Stiller Rikleen, the author of Ending the Gauntlet: Removing Barriers to Women’s Success in the Law, is the founder and Executive Director of the Bowditch Institute for Women’s Success. Through the Bowditch Institute, Lauren works with law firms and professional service organizations throughout the country to improve the retention and advancement of women in their workplace. She is also an equity partner in the Real Estate and Environmental Law Practice Group of Bowditch & Dewey, LLP, where her practice includes mediating complex land use and environmental disputes. She has been recognized in The Best Lawyers in America, Chambers USA America’s Leading Business Lawyers, Massachusetts Super Lawyers and is also the recipient of numerous honors and awards.

Among her many professional and civic commitments, Ms. Rikleen is a member of the American Bar Association’s Board of Governors and recently completed three years as a member of the ABA Commission on Women in the Profession. As the former president of the Boston Bar Association, she created the Task-Force on Professional Challenges and Family Needs, which produced a nationally recognized report entitled: Facing the Grail – Confronting the Costs of Work/Family Imbalance. In addition to her consulting work through the Institute, Ms. Rikleen is frequently published in national and international periodicals. She is regularly requested to appear as a keynote speaker or participant in regional and national programs addressing women and workplace issues. A magna cum laude graduate from Brandeis University, she received her J.D. from Boston College School of Law.

Lawrence G. Sager
Dean, University of Texas School of Law

Lawrence G. Sager is the Dean of the University of Texas at Austin School of Law and holds the John Jeffers Research Chair in Law and the Alice Jane Drysdale Sheffield Regents Chair. Dean Sager is one of the nation's preeminent constitutional theorists and scholars. He came to Texas from New York University School of Law, where he was the Robert B. McKay Professor and Co-Founder of the Program in Law, Philosophy & Social Theory. He has also taught at Harvard, Princeton, Boston University, UCLA, and the University of Michigan. He is the author or co-author of dozens of articles, many now classics in the canon of legal scholarship, and is the author of two books: Justice in Plainclothes: a Theory of American Constitutional Practice (Yale Univ. Press), and Religious Freedom and the Constitution (co-authored with Christopher Eisgruber) (Harvard Univ. Press). Dean Sager has a B.A. from Pomona College and a LL.B from Columbia University. He is married to Jane Cohen, the Edward Clark Centennial Professor at the University of Texas at Austin School of Law. They live in Austin with their twin daughters.

Keisha N. Stanford
Student, Stanford Law School; Executive Board Member, Building a Better Legal Profession; National Board, Ms. JD National Women Law Students Association

Keisha N. Stanford is a second-year law student at Stanford Law School, where she serves as the Co-President of the Stanford Law Students’ Association and the Women of Stanford Law. Sheis also the Development Chair for Ms. JD, a national nonpartisan nonprofit which seeks to improve the experiences of women in law school and the legal profession. Ms. Stanford graduated Summa cum laude from Emory University in May 2002, majoring in Philosophy and Spanish. Following graduation, she began working in the Immigration practice group at Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker LLP in Atlanta, GA and then began a graduate program in philosophy at Emory. Continuing to work at Paul Hastings part-time as a Senior Immigration Assistant during her graduate program, she completed her Master of Arts degree in Philosophy in May 2007.

Laura Stein
General Counsel, The Clorox Company

Laura Stein returned to The Clorox Company in 2005, and serves as senior vice president – general counsel of The Clorox Company with responsibility for the company's worldwide legal, ethics and compliance, corporate secretary, corporate communications, crisis management, risk management and internal audit matters. Previously, Ms. Stein was senior vice president – general counsel of the H.J. Heinz Company, a member of the Heinz senior management committee, a director of the H.J. Heinz Company Foundation and president of the H.J. Heinz women’s group, among other responsibilities. Prior to joining Heinz, Ms. Stein was assistant general counsel – regulatory affairs of Clorox for eight years, and before that was a corporate lawyer with Morrison & Foerster in San Francisco and Hong Kong.

Ms. Stein is a director of Franklin Resources, Inc. (a global investment organization known as Franklin Templeton Investments), and was previously a director of Nash Finch Company. She is chair of the nominating committee and the international committee and is also the immediate past chair of the board of the Association of Corporate Counsel. Ms. Stein is chair of the ABA Asia Rule of Law Initiative and co-chair of the Corporate Pro Bono Advisory Board. She is on the board of Equal Justice Works. She is a member of the American Law Institute, the Association of General Counsel, the ABA International Law Section Council and the ABA Rule of Law Initiative Board. Ms. Stein participates in the Diversity and Flexibility Connection of the Project for Attorney Retention. Ms. Stein previously served on the advisory boards of ABA DirectWomen, the ABA Center for Human Rights, and the LexMundi Foundation and on the State Bar of California Task Force on Lawyer Support for Legal Services. Previously, she was also chair of the ABA Commission on Domestic Violence, vice-chair of the East Bay Community Law Center, co-chair of the General Counsel Committee of the American Bar Association, and a director of Global Education Partnership and of the Pittsburgh Ballet Theater.

Ms. Stein has received the Legal Momentum Women of Achievement Award, the Sandra Day O’Connor Board Excellence Award and the Ted Craig Humanitarian Award. The National Law Journal has named Ms. Stein as one of the 20 most influential general counsel in America. The Harvard Law Bulletin has highlighted Ms. Stein as one of 50 alumnae who “have used their law degree to take them to extraordinary places.” She has been named one of the Bay Area’s Most Influential Women in Business by the San Francisco Business Times and was previously named one of Pennsylvania’s Best Women in Business by Pennsylvania’s Governor. Ms. Stein is multilingual and has lived in China and Italy.

Ms. Stein received her J.D. from Harvard Law School, and is a graduate of Dartmouth College where she earned an undergraduate and master’s degrees. She is married and has two children.

Adrienne Iwamoto Suarez
Legislative Researcher, Hawaii State Representative Della Au Belatti

Adrienne Iwamoto Suarez received a B.A. in English and Comparative Literature, cum laude, from Columbia College, Columbia University in 1997; an M.A. in English Education from Teachers College, Columbia University in 2001; and a J.D., summa cum laude, from the William S. Richardson School of Law at the University of Hawaii in 2005. Prior to attending law school, Ms. Suarez was a New York City public schoolteacher for four years. While in law school, Ms. Suarez won numerous awards for her legal scholarship, including a CALI Excellence for the Future Award for Second Year Seminar, an honorable mention in the American Planning Association's Smith-Babcock-Williams Student Writing Competition, second place in the American Bar Association's Probate and Real Property Section's Jacques T. Schlenger Writing Competition, the Hawaii State Bar Association Real Property and Financial Services Section Award for Best Law Student Paper, and the Hawaii State Bar Association Young Lawyers Division Award for Best Overall Law Student Paper.

After law school, she clerked for the Honorable Richard R. Clifton of the United States Court of the Appeals for the Ninth Circuit then went into private practice in the Trusts and Estates Department of a prominent Honolulu law firm. She is currently a legislative researcher for Hawaii State Representative Della Au Belatti. Ms. Suarez is also a freelance writer and undergraduate English and writing instructor. Her legal publications include "Avoiding the Next Hokulia: The Debate over Hawaii’s Agricultural Subdivisions,” 27 U. Haw. L. Rev. 441 (2005), reprinted in excerpted form in Ka Nu Hou (April 2005); “Privatization and the Providing of Public Facilities through Private Means,” 21 J. L. & Pol. 477 (2005) (co-authored with David L. Callies); and “Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions . . . on Free Speech? First Amendment Rights in Common-Interest Communities,” 40 Real Prop., Prob. & Tr. L. J. 739 (2006), reprinted in excerpted form in GPSolo Magazine, The Best Articles Published by the ABA (March 2007). She currently lives in Hawaii.

Joan C. Williams
Distinguished Professor of Law, 1066 Foundation Chair and Co-Director of the Project for Attorney Retention, University of California Hastings College of Law

Professor Joan C. Williams is Distinguished Professor of Law, founding Director of the Center for WorkLife Law at University of California, Hastings College of the Law, and Co-Director of the Project on Attorney Retention (PAR). A prize-winning author and expert on work/family issues, she is author of Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What To Do About It (Oxford University Press, 2000), which won the 2000 Gustavus Myers Outstanding Book Award. She has authored or co-authored four books and over fifty law review articles. Her “Beyond the Maternal Wall: Relief for Family Caregivers Who are Discriminated against on the Job,” 26 Harvard Women’s Law Review 77 (2003), (co-authored with Nancy Segal), was prominently cited in Back v. Hastings on Hudson Union Free School District, 2004 U.S. App. Lexis 6684 (2d Cir. April 7, 2004).

She also has played a central role in organizing social scientists to document maternal wall bias, notably in a special issue of the Journal of Social Issues (2004), co-edited with Monica Biernat and Faye Crosby, which was awarded the Distinguished Publication Award by the Association for Women in Psychology. In 2006, she received the Margaret Brent Award for Women Lawyers of Achievement. Her current work focuses on social psychology, and how work/family conflict affects families across the social spectrum, with a particular focus on how care giving issues arise in union arbitrations. In 2006, Professor Williams received the American Bar Association’s Margaret Brent Award for Women Lawyers of Achievement. In spring 2008, she gave the Massey Lectures on American Civilization at Harvard University, titled “Obama Eats Arugula: Reshaping the Electoral and Everyday Politics of Work and Family.”

Professor Williams teaches property as well as courses related to gender, family and employment. She is married and has two children.

The Hon. Diane P. Wood
Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the 7th Cir.

Diane P. Wood is a Circuit Judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit and a Senior Lecturer in Law at the University of Chicago Law School. Judge Wood attended the University of Texas at Austin, earning her B.A. in 1971 (highest honors), and her J.D. in 1975 (Order of the Coif).

After graduation from law school, she clerked for Judge Irving L. Goldberg on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (1975-76), and for Justice Harry A. Blackmun of the U.S. Supreme Court (1976-77). She then spent a brief period at the Office of the Legal Adviser in the U.S. Department of State. In 1980, she began her career as a legal academic at Georgetown University Law Center. She moved to the University of Chicago Law School in 1981, serving as a full-time professor until 1995 and as Associate Dean from 1989 through 1992. In 1990, she was named to the Harold J. and Marion F. Green Professorship in International Legal Studies, becoming the first woman to hold a named chair at the school. From 1993 until she was appointed to the Seventh Circuit in 1995, she served as Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice.

Judge Wood is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and is on the Council of the American Law Institute. Judge Wood is married to Dr. Robert L. Sufit. She has three children and three step-children. She enjoys playing the oboe and English horn in several Chicago-area amateur orchestras.