LYNDON B. JOHNSON SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
EDITOR Hoyt H. Purvis
CAMPBELL SPEAKS ON PUBLIC AFFAIRS GROWTH
Dr. Alan K. Campbell, who assumed his duties as dean of the LBJ School on February 1, discussed the current status of public affairs education at a schoolwide seminar on February 9.
Dean Campbell, who served as president of the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA) in 1974‑75, while dean of the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University, reviewed the rapid growth of public affairs education in recent years.
"We have seen a fantastic growth in the number of schools and programs as well as the number of students," Campbell said. The number of programs has grown from 65 in 1968 to 185 currently, with Columbia University having established a program just last week.
He said the number of master's degree candidates had risen from 7,000 to 23,000 in that period and that the number of degrees awarded annually climbed from 3,000 to 12,000. Campbell noted that this growth had created "some obvious placement problems."
"There may be a leveling off in the number of applications in the next year or two," and, if so, "the rate of growth will decline; some of the small programs might disappear."
Campbell noted that the growth in public affairs education accompanied the growth of public sector employment although he stressed that the growth has been in the state‑local, not the federal sector.
As for the reasons for the growth in public affairs education, Campbell cited "the hope of young people to create a better society and improved quality of life." He said, "It is more satisfying and has greater personal rewards than other and perhaps better‑paying jobs."
In answer to the question, "Are we training more people than we have jobs?" Campbell said, "In the short run, yes. There are placement difficulties. But in the long run, no. There are a large number of jobs in the public sector and related fields which could effectively use the skills and knowledge provided by public affairs education but are now filled by individuals without that training. As potential employers become aware of the usefulness of public policy/administration training they will turn increasingly to graduates of schools like LBJ." He said an effort also must be made to find public‑related jobs in the private sector.
Campbell also discussed federal civil service entry problems for public affairs graduates.
Campbell also discussed federal civil service entry problems for public affairs graduates. He is among those who have been working for a resolution of this difficulty. "The Civil Service Commission has not recognized what has gone on in public service education. They still believe the right entry into the public sector is through the PACE exam. This is in contrast to the private sector which has been increasingly recruiting master's degree holders from professional schools like business and engineering."
He also noted that a joint task force from NASPAA and the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business has been working with the CSC on the problem. "I believe we have a real possibility of changing the situation."
Campbell also referred to President Carter's planned program for 250 federal interns which is now in the development process. He indicated too that the Carter Administration may support Title IX (Public Service Education) funding as well, which would mark the first time the Executive Branch has backed the program. The first two years of funding resulted from Congress adding it to the budget.
In commenting on the substance of public affairs education, Campbell said, "The student in public affairs and public policy must be able to apply sophisticated analytical techniques to get at the critical problems."
He noted that specialized areas of study miss the important interconnections between areas and systems.
Campbell said he felt there should be a "substantial economic content—primarily micro" in public affairs education.
He said, "There is a great deal of ferment and argument in the public affairs field about exactly what should be done. But I feel the ferment is valuable."
Campbell said that he was coming from the oldest public affairs school to one of the newest. "I view it as a rare opportunity. I am particularly pleased to be associated with this faculty. I know a good deall about the quality of faculties in this field across the country and I am looking forward to working with the faculty here."
Dean Alan K. Campbell has announced that Keith Arnold and Jurgen Schmandt will serve as associate deans during the spring semester.
Arnold will be continuing as an associate dean, working on budgetary and administrative matters. Schmandt, who served as acting dean from September 1 to January 31, will assist Dean Campbell in developing the School's research program.
Ralph Furtner will work as special assistant to the Dean and will also work on the Policy Research Project on OPIC Investment Insurance. Furtner was a visiting faculty member in the school in 1974‑75 while an Air Force officer.
Gery Williams has left the LBJ School faculty to join the staff of Conrail in Washington, D.C. Professor Jared Hazleton has replaced Williams as director of the Transportation Policy Research Project.
BOULDING SCHEDULES PEACE LECTURE SERIES
A series of four lectures on world peace by Professor Kenneth Boulding, Distinguished Visiting Tom Slick Professor in World Peace at the LBJ School, are scheduled for February 18‑19 and March 4‑5.
The scheduled lectures are:
The Meaning of Peace, Friday February 18, 2 p.m.
The Sources of Peace, Saturday February 19, 10 a.m.
The Justice of Peace, Friday March 4, 2 p.m.
Policy for Peace, Saturday March 5, 10 a.m.
The first three lectures will be in the East Campus Lecture Hall with the final lecture scheduled for Thompson Center 2.102.
Boulding is the first holder of the distinguished visiting professorship endowed by Tom Slick, a Texan with a lifelong interest in peace research.
Boulding taught a topical semianr at the LBJ School during the fall semester and directed the conference on Conflict, Order, and Peace in the Americas, the first Slick Conference. Two books resulting from that conference are scheduled to be published later this year.
Boulding is an economics scholar of international renown and directs a program of research on general social and economic dynamics in the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado.
Born in Liverpool, England, in 1910, Boulding was educated at Oxford and the University of Chicago. He emigrated to the United States in 193 7 and became an American citizen in 1948. He is a former president of the American Economic Association and the International Studies Association. He has been active in the peace research movement and was a founder of the Center for Research on Conflict Resolution at the University of Michigan in 1956. His major publication in this field is Conflict and Defense (Harpter & Row, 1962).
Here is a summary outline of the subjects to be covered in the first two lectures:
February 18—The Meaning of Peace
Peace is a word of many meanings: peace of mind, domestic tranquility, law and order, and so on. In these lectures, however, we will be concentrating on peace as the opposite of war, as a possible relationship between political entities, whether these are tribes, nation states, empires or superpowers. Historians can usually identify whether the relationship between two political entities at a given date is one of war or of peace, though there are some doubtful cases. Formal declarations of war are only part of the evidence. The behavior of the parties is what is really significant, and this differs very markedly in the condition of war from the condition of peace. Both war and peace are positively definable states of a system, neither is merely the absence of the other. As far as the records permit, we can measure the incidence of war and peace over space and over time. This is highly variable. The proportion of time at peace and the probability of peace is much larger in some systems and in some times and places than it is in others.
February 19—The Sources of Peace
The critical question is: What is the difference between systems that have a high probability of peace and those that have a low one? We can distinguish roughly four phases of such systems: stable war, unstable war, unstable peace, and stable peace. Movement from one phase to another is frequently an accident of the general dynamics of the society, but it can be the result of specific policies. Two major clusters of phase determinants are postulated. These might be described as "strains" and "strengths." The boundary from peace to war is crossed when the strain on the system is too much for the strength. Elements of strain include memories of past wars, dynamics of threat systems, the structure of powerful roles and the means of filling them, the professionalization of the war industry, and so on. The strength of the system is a function of its communication patterns, its integrative relationships, its technology, its dynamics in other areas such as economic development, and so on. Stable peace is not a dream. It already exists in part of the system. A critical question today is: How can it spread to become characteristic of the total world system? We now have islands of stable peace in a stormy sea of unstable peace. As these islands grow, however, we may pass a subtle and perhaps unperceived transition, in which areas of unstable peace become stormy lakes in a world continent of stable peace.
"0n the Record"
. Urban development in the South and Southwestern regions of the United States was examined at a conference on "Political Economic Studies of Sunbelt Cities" sponsored by the UT College of Social and Behavioral Sciences and the Department of Government. Among the panelists discussing papers presented to the conference was Dean Alan K. Campbell of the LBJ School.
. State Representative Sarah Weddington of Austin will speak on current legislative issues at a brownbag luncheon in the Student Lounge at noon on Tuesday, February 15. She follows State Senator Ray Farabee of Wichita Falls, who spoke at a brownbag luncheon on February 8.
. Professor Jared Hazleton's paper on "Gold Rush Economics: Development Planning in the Persian/Arabian Gulf," published by the LBJ School as a working paper, has been accepted for publication by Studies in Comparative International Development, an academic journal focusing on international affairs.
. Dean Alan K. Campbell will be project director of a Committee for Economic Development (CED) project on Revitalizing America's Cities. The project is one of the CED's priorities for 1977‑78. It will highlight the policies needed to make the most of constructive new forces on the urban scene and to counter the forces that are eroding the economic base of American cities. Earlier Campbell served as project director of Reshaping Government in Metropolitan Areas (1970).
. Professor Beryl Radin was a panelist at the conference on Crime: A People's Problem, funded by the Texas Committee for the Humanities and Public Policy and the National Endowment for the Humanities. She took part in the discussion of "Planning and Funding Priorities of the Criminal Justice System, 1977." The February 11 conference was at the Thompson Conference Center. Radin will also take part as an invited guest in a conference on "Human Services/Higher Education: Business as Usual or New Directions?" at the University of Southern California, February 16‑17.
. Two LBJ School faculty members will be taking part in a session dealing with energy conservation at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Social Science Association in Dallas, March 30‑April 2. Professor Marlan Blissett will be giving a paper on "Implementing the State Procurement Practices Provision of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975" and Professor Jared Hazleton will be a discussant.
GRAHAM DISCUSSES VALUES, ETHICS IN FOREIGN POLICY
John Graham, a Foreign Service Officer currently serving as a Congressional Fellow in the office of Senator John Glenn, discussed ethics in foreign‑policy decision making at a brown‑bag luncheon in the Student Lounge on February 4.
Graham, who was introuced by Professor Sidney Weintraub, reviewed his experience in chairing a State Department panel dealing with values and ethics in foreign policy.
Last year State Department representatives took part in a number of town meetings around the country. One of the common threats apparent at such meetings, Graham said, was "a strong sense that Washington had developed a different set of priorities and values from the rest of the country."
In considering this problem, Graham said, the State Department group broke values down into two categories:
"Because of World War 11 and our postwar experience, we put the emphasis on the security‑power‑wealth syndrome and never really switched back, ignoring the humanist side," Graham said.
Graham pointed to a recent essay in Time by former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger in which "he seemed to be saying that values were for the people out in the country but in Washington we had to be tough."
Kissinger "was dichotomizing the value system," Graham said.
Graham recalled such incidents as the burning of a Vietnamese village "in order to save it" as examples of such values carried to an extreme.
"We need to see foreign policy as a single integrated process and stop separating the hard and the soft, the practical and the humanist."
Graham said emphasis should be placed on recreating a climate of public trust, eliminating double standards in foreign policy, and overcoming the image of Washington omniscience in foreign policy.
"Interdependence should be a strong selling point for building interest in foreign policy," commented Graham, who has been speaking to citizens groups on increasing public involvement.
BLISSETT TESTIFIES ON ENERGY SOURCES
Professor Marlan Blissett of the LBJ School testified before the State Affairs Committee of the Texas House of Representatives on February 7 in support of legislation which would request state institutions to encourage feasibility studies and demonstration projects that make use of alternative energy sources in the construction of new state buildings.
Blissett said the proposal "represents a meaningful step in the development of a state energy policy."
He said "it would be both prudent and useful to consider supplemental energy sources that can be tailored to individual buildings or small complexes."
"I strongly recommend that the state of Texas encourage the development of small‑scale decentralized power systems that rely upon solar and wind energy," Blissett said. "I do not have in mind extravagant systems that cost a lot of money. I am thinking of simple devices such as windmills and solar collectors that could at least provide power for selected appliances and operating equipment and that could heat water and maybe even a small building or two."
In addition to recommendations that future construction "pay more attention to the use of supplemental or alternative energy systems" Blissett suggested that the language of the resolution be altered to include, where feasbile, existing structures as well.
Blissett has served on the Energy Conservation Committee of UT‑Austin and as a college energy coordinator. From this experience Blissett noted that "with fuel costs continuing to rise it makes good economic sense to utilize supplemental energy technologies to decrease dependence on central power generation."
Blissett is also a member of the Lignite Mining Task Force of the Governor's Energy Advisory Council and has worked on a number of energy‑related projects at the LBJ School.
BLUM ON PANEL ON LABOR ISSUES
What is the status of the labor movement in the United States today?
"The American labor movement is now a part of the accepted establishment in our society," according to Dr. Albert Blum, professor at the LBJ School.
Its main role in a "mixed economy" is to "force the developments" in as‑yet poorly organized fields, he continues.
"Two significant developments in the American labor movement are the extension of collective bargaining to public employees and the extension of the labor movement" to such areas as agriculture, says Dr. Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor and UT Austin professor of economics (on leave). (Marshall was a participating faculty member at the LBJ School during the fall.)
While labor has progressed from "historic bases in manufacturing, mining, construction and transportation" to white‑collar areas and service industries, these areas are not fully organized, according to Dr. Vernon Briggs, professor of economics at the University.
Dr. Blum notes that white‑collar workers in the U.S. are less unionized than are those in Europe. Although labor movements in the U.S. and Western Europe have similar political and economic goals, they have different methods of arbitrating disputes.
Unlike the American system of collective bargaining to settle labor conflicts, "labor courts" are used in Europe for settling strikes among public employees, Dr. Marshall explains.
"We have, everywhere in the Western world, recognized collective bargaining as a fundamental part of a democratic process," he adds.
"The most important issues raised by public employee organization—bargaining and striking—tend to be Constitutional and legal issues rather than economic effects of the strikes themselves," Dr. Marshall continues.
The panelists discuss current issues in American labor on "The Next 200 Years," a weekly radio program of the University, heard on KUT‑FM and numerous other stations.
Organizing agricultural workers has been a slow process in the U.S., the panelists agree.
"The only reason agricultural workers are currently excluded from the National Labor Relations Act is political," Dr. Marshall notes.
"Exclusion from the NLRA meant that there was no way to decide which union, if any, represented the workers for bargaining purposes," he continues. "Agricultural workers have as much right to collective bargaining as anyone."
Blum believes that to organize farm workers, "one may need a merger of trade unionists and social reformers of all types." He cites the example of that type of organization under Cesar Chavez in California, saying Chavez' success was due to the "merger of movements" which later "attracted a business union-oriented group—the Teamsters."
Briggs raises the issue of illegal aliens and illegal workers, which is a situation "that is absolutely out of control in this country." In Europe, he observes, alien workers are unionized and are active members of "established unions because they are under controlled programs."
They (illegal aliens) represent a real threat to the existing labor movement" in the U.S. and to many American industries, which have not been organized, Dr. Briggs says. Growing in numbers, illegal aliens will be difficult to organize and will work long hours for minimal wages, he adds.
"If allowed to continue, illegal immigrants will take over jobs that domestic workers would like to have, Marshall says.
Although Blum views the issue of illegal aliens as a national one, he says "it can only be solved internationally." To solve the problem in the Southwest "without invasions of civil liberties" and the consequences of a "closed border," an international labor movement should make efforts to raise the standard of living of workers in Mexico, in his opinion.
Marshall proposes a solution where, first, "the nature of the problem" is recognized, because of the possible long‑run consequences to the countries involved.
And second, the flow of people should be regulated to compensate for the demand for labor in such a way that "it has no detrimental effect on domestic workers," he says, noting that in Europe aliens entered legally and accepted jobs that domestics had vacated.
HAZLETON TO SPEAK ON MIDDLE EAST
Professor Jared Hazleton has been invited to participate in a conference on business in the Middle East to be held in Houston under the joint sponsorship of the Middle East Institute, Probe International, and the Houston World Trade Center. The conference, titled "Tremendous Opportunities" in the Middle East: Fact or Faction will be held March 15‑16.
Hazleton has been asked to make a presentation evaluating general economic prospects in the Middle East. Other participants will address particular subjects such as investment opportunities, types of business ventures, and political issues. Individuals attending the conference will include leaders in the business community representing firms having an interest in business opportunities in the Middle East.
TWO PROJECT REPORTS PUBLISHED BY SCHOOL
Two Policy Research Project Reports resulting from projects at the LBJ School during the 1975‑76 academic year have recently been published.
MEAL SYSTEM FOR THE ELDERLY
The development and evaluation of a meal system for the elderly, a joint project involving the LBJ School and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, resulted in a 95‑page illustrated report entitled Meal System For the Elderly: Conventional Food in Novel Form.
As Project Director Jurgen Schmandt describes it, the project had its genesis when the Director of the Texas Governor's Committee on Aging Research Utilization Program (now a part of the Texas Department of Public Welfare) asked NASA if it could help improve nutritional services for the elderly, particularly those in areas not reached by the meals‑on‑wheels program.
"As it turned out, NASA's experience in developing a shelf‑stable, nutritious, easily transportable meals system for its manned space programs provided the foundation for design and development of a meals system intended to meet the special needs of the elderly. A joint project was launched to develop the system, conduct technical and user taste tests, develop new delivery systems, conduct field tests, undertake medical assessments, and evaluate the results of these various activities," Schmandt said.
The Texas Department of Public Welfare provided funds for the participation of the LBJ School and United Action for the Elderly. The School made funds from a Ford Foundation grant available to finance the medical component of the project.
The report describes the various demonstration and testing components of the project plus the economics and policy implications of the meal system.
The report concludes that the demonstrations "showed shelf‑stable, nutritious, single‑meal units to be popular and beneficial."
The report states, "The long process of technology transfer, in the case of the meal system, is still in its early stages. All those associated with the project realize that this process is dependent on social and economic arrangements for making use of a new technical concept .... What made sense for the user group of the elderly may not make sense for other groups. In each case, the social need to be served and the institutional mechanisms to achieve this goal have to receive detailed attention. The meal system has real potential when the technology used in the NASA meal system can help in meeting concrete social or economic needs."
Schmandt said, "The experiment described in the report was a small one. We are gratified to find that the project led to national legislation proposing a larger and longer demonstration. We also see possible uses of the meal system for other social services, for disaster relief and emergency aid, and, perhaps, there is even potential for wide commercial utilization. At the same time, we realize that these developments can only occur if and when government agencies and industry determine ... that there is real potential in the concept and that the system can be used, however refined and changed, to meet a variety of human and social needs."
Serving with Schmandt on the project faculty were Professors Lodis Rhodes and David Warner and Ruth Roth, social science research associate.
Student participants were Deborah Beckett, Dan Casey, Barbara Dydek, Hannah Eisner, Al Giles, John Hunt, Stan Kaplan, Thomas Martin, Joe Motter, Francine Pegues, Rita Seymour, Julius Whitter, and Peggy Wilson.
SHORT‑TERM FUNDS MANAGEMENT
The report on Short‑Term Surplus Funds Management for the State of Texas was prepared by a team from the State Government Operations Policy Research Project. The project team worked with staff from the Texas Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations to provide research support for the Joint Advisory Committee on Government Operations. The Joint Committee, also known as the Hobby‑Clayton Commission, was considering recommendations for improving the economy and efficiency of state government.
The report explains the background of current Texas short‑term investment policy and suggests possible alternatives to augment state interest earnings on invested surplus funds. It also includes a survey of how the investment of surplus state funds is handled in 10 other states.
Among the recommendations offered are:
. A complete cash flow forecasting study.
. Amounts of money held in demand deposits should be reduced to 4 percent or less of the Treasury's average daily balance.
. Additional authority for the treasurer to invest surplus state monies in U.S. Government securities, federal agency securities, repurchase agreements, certificates of deposit, and Texas savings and loan shares.
. Time deposits should be placed and liquidated on a carefully planned basis consistent with the need for working capital.
. A reduction in the number of state fund accounts.
. Local Education Fund accounts should be incorporated into the state's general fund structure.
Student members of the team which conducted the research on surplus fund management were Marc Jacobson, John Kamensky, and Gerald Weller. John Hamilton was the staff research manager.
Project faculty members were Professors Keith Arnold, Richard Schott, and Kenneth Tolo, who served as project director. Hamilton was project manager.
The LBJ School has now published 17 Policy Research Project Reports. In addition, a number of other publications have been generated by the projects as well as conferences, seminars, and other activities.