About Value-Added Models
- What is value-added modeling in education?Value-added modeling (VAM) is a way to measure a teacher’s (or principal’s/school’s) unique contribution to a student’s learning. By measuring a student’s academic history and factors that contribute to a child’s learning, statistical techniques are used to predict students’ performance. The difference between a students’ predicted performance and actual performance can be attributed to their teacher’s (or principal’s/school’s) effectiveness.
- What are the approaches to value-added modeling?
- What do you mean by student achievement and student performance?PEEQ uses the term student performance when referring to measureable outcomes of student learning, such as test scores. Student achievement is used to refer to the broader learning process.
About PEEQ in Texas
- Why is PEEQ developing a state-wide value-added model in Texas?Senate Bill 174, passed in the 81st legislature, requires that educator preparation programs be accountable for their graduates’ performance through four standards:
- Pass rate on certification exams
- Appraisals of beginning teachers by school administrators
- Achievement or improvement in achievement of students taught by new teachers in their first three years in the classroom
- Collection of field-observation data for first-year teachersPEEQ is tasked with standard 3 and will use comprehensive data, including scores on the state’s standardized exams and qualitative measures, such as a principal’s observation of a teacher’s performance, to measure student achievement or growth in student achievement.
- How will PEEQ use a value-added model to measure educator preparation programs in Texas?PEEQ will measure the effectiveness of teachers in their first three years in the field. The information gathered will include a survey of the teacher’s principal as well as a measure of the teacher’s value-added to student learning. Other evidence may be included at a later date. This information will be then be aggregated back to the (teacher) graduate’s educator preparation program (EPP). The EPP will then be scored by the Accountability System for Educator Preparation (ASEP) at the Texas Education Agency (TEA) based on their graduate’s performance on the four standards of SB 174 (now §TEC 21.045). This score will be publicly available through the TEA website.
- How is PEEQ’s value-added model different than other ones used in the state?Several large districts across the state already use value-added models to measure teacher, administrator, or school effectiveness. PEEQ’s model will not compete with theirs. The information gathered by PEEQ is solely for the purpose of measuring the preparation a teacher receives and how that preparation affects student learning. PEEQ is committed to developing a model that is:
- Comprehensive: PEEQ will use qualitative and quantitative measures, where appropriate, to achieve the most comprehensive measure of a teacher’s unique contribution to student learning.
- Useful: EPPs and teachers will receive reports showing what areas they performed strongest and what areas need improvement. PEEQ will provide this information in the most constructive manner possible so that educators and EPPs have the best information possible to improve their performance in the future.
- Reliable and Valid: PEEQ will ensure that the model it develops will produce consistent results that measure a teacher’s unique contribution to student learning and minimize bias or inaccuracy.
- Transparent: PEEQ will be forthright about what it is measuring, how it is measuring, how the measurements will be used, and the strengths and weaknesses of its model.
- What if an educator preparation program graduate does not have a standardized test in the subject or grade they teach?Grade levels and subject areas that do not have a state standardized exam are more difficult to measure and there is little consistency across the country to measure those teachers’ value-added to student learning. PEEQ also has the additional challenge of applying a standard system state-wide. PEEQ is reaching out to those teachers and their representative organizations to develop a way to measure the contributions of music, art, physical education, kindergarten through second grades, and other teachers in non-tested grade levels and subject areas.
- How will educator preparation programs be able to use the information from the metric?PEEQ is working with educator preparation programs to provide the most useful information. PEEQ will provide training and professional development on how to interpret the metric’s output and make use of the information provided.
- Who is PEEQ working with to develop a metric of teacher effectiveness?PEEQ’s primary goal is to ensure the metric will be a valid and reliable tool that accurately reflects the quality of teaching in Texas and provides useful feedback to educator preparation programs to help them improve the quality of their programs. In order to do this, PEEQ regularly meets and communicates with stakeholders including teachers and teacher associations, principal and school board associations, the Texas Education Agency as well as other educator groups. In addition, PEEQ created two advisory groups. One group consists of statisticians or deans’ designates from educator preparation programs to ensure they understand the value-added model and what it is measuring. The second group consists of researchers and policymakers from around the country working on similar projects, so that PEEQ may gain the expertise of their experience in implementing a state-wide measure of accountability.
- When will the metric be ready?The first year of data officially linking students to teachers as well as a pilot of the principal’s assessment of the new teacher will be available to PEEQ in the fall of 2011. PEEQ will provide a pilot metric to the Texas Education Agency in March of 2012. Because the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test is moving to the State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness (STAAR) test, conditional on the alignment of these exams, a refined metric using STAAR data will be available in March of 2013. While the metric is being finalized, PEEQ will work on professional development to train educator preparation programs, teachers, and administrators about the new metric. PEEQ is committed to be fully transparent about what the metric measures, what it cannot measure, and how it is calculated.