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Chapter 9

Maritime-Mobile Satellite Propagation Effects

9.2    Early Multipath Experiments

9.2.1    Ship to Satellite Fading Measurements
9.2.2    Evolution of a Simplified Multipath Fading Prediction Model

9.3    Characteristics of Multipath Fading Due to Sea Surface Reflection

9.3.1    Fundamental Concepts
9.3.2    Prediction Method of Karasawa and Shiokawa
9.3.3    Example Calculation

9.4    Model of Fade Durations Due to Sea Reflections

9.4.1    Example Calculation

9.5    Multipath from Rough Seas and Frequency Dependence on Multipath Fading

9.5.1    Rough Sea Model
9.5.2    Dependence on Frequency

9.6    Other Maritime Investigations

9.6.1    Experimental Measurements in Japan during 1980 and 1983
9.6.2    Extension of the Kirchhoff Classical Model
9.6.3    K/Ka-Band Maritime Experiments

9.7    Summary and Recommendations

9.7.1    Fading Depth Due to Sea Surface Reflections
9.7.2    Fading Depth Durations and Occurrence Intervals
9.7.3    Fading Depth Dependence on Frequency and Significant Wave Height

9.8    References

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