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Chapter 12

Summary of Recommendations

12.1 Introduction (Chapter 1)

12.2 Average Foliage Attenuation Due to Trees: Static Case (Chapter 2)

12.2.1 Average and Median Foliage Attenuation Due to Tree Canopies
12.2.2 Frequency Scaling
12.2.3 Effects of Canopy Branches and Foliage
12.2.4 Suggestions for Future Efforts

12.3 Attenuation Due to Roadside Trees: Mobile Case (Chapter 3)

12.3.1 The Extended Empirical Roadside Shadowing Model
12.3.2 Effects of Foliage
12.3.3 Suggestions for Future Efforts

12.4 Signal Degradation for Line-of-Sight Communications (Chapter 4)

12.4.1 Empirical Multipath Model
12.4.2 Suggestions for Future Work

12.5 Fade and Non-Fade Durations and Phase Spreads (Chapter 5)

12.5.1 Fade Duration Model for L?Band
12.5.2 Cumulative Distributions of Non-Fade Durations
12.5.3 Cumulative Distributions of Phase Fluctuations
12.5.4 Suggestions for Further Work

12.6 Polarization, Antenna Gain and Diversity Considerations (Chapter 6)

12.6.1 Frequency Re-Use
12.6.2 Multipath Effects for Variable Antenna Gains
12.6.3 Effect of Switching Lanes
12.6.4 Diversity Gain by Spaced Antennas
12.6.5 Satellite Diversity
12.6.6 Suggestions for Further Work

12.7 Investigations from Different Countries (Chapter 7)

12.7.1 Compendium of Measurements
12.7.2 Suggestions for Further Work

12.8 Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects Inside Buildings (Chapter 8)

12.8.1 Required Fade Margins Inside Buildings
12.8.2 Fading Dependence on Frequency
12.8.3 Distortion Due to Bandwidth
12.8.4 Fading Effects Due to Antenna Positioning
12.8.5 Effects Caused by the Human Body
12.8.6 Suggestions for Further Work

12.9 Maritime-Mobile Satellite Propagation Effects (Chapter 9)

12.9.1 Fading Depth Due to Sea Surface Reflections
12.9.2 Fading Depth Dependence on Frequency and Significant Wave Height
12.9.3 Suggestions for Further Work

12.10 Optical Methods for Assessing Fade Margins for Shadowing, Blockage, and Clear Line-of-Sight Conditions (Chapter 10)

12.10.1 Urban Three-State Fade Model
12.10.2 Probability Distributions and Diversity Gains
12.10.3 Suggestions for Future Work

12.11 Theoretical Modeling Considerations (Chapter 11)

12.11.1 Choosing a Model
12.11.1.1 Empirical Regression Models
12.11.1.2 Statistical Models
12.11.1.3 Analytical Models
12.11.2 Suggestions for Future Work

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