The 1931 Excavations at the Sanders Site, Lamar County, Texas
A.T. Jackson, Marcus S. Goldstein and Alex D. Krieger
Introduction by Frank Schamback
The Texas Archeological Research Laboratory is pleased to publish for the first time the original descriptive report on The University of Texas at Austin excavations in 1931 at the T. M. Sanders Farm site (41LR2). In recent years there has been renewed interest in the material recovered at the site in 1931; and the debates about the findings have been lively and not without significant implications for Caddoan archeology in particular and Southeastern archeology in general. As indicated by Frank Schambach in the introduction, this little known manuscript contains a wealth of information on one of the more unusual and interesting prehistoric sites in Texas. Included with this descriptive report are two other pertinent manuscripts, one on the physical anthropological analysis by Marcus Goldstein, and one on the ceramics by Alex Krieger. Together, these three manuscripts are, as noted by Schambach, key documents in the story of Sanders. To the extent practical, the reports herein published are as written in 1931 by Jackson, by Goldstein probably in 1941, and by Krieger also probably in 1941. New artifact photographs have been added to those in the original manuscript.
This is the 2nd volume in TARL's Archival Series.
To Order: print out a TARL publication order form -- the Sanders Report costs $20.00 plus tax and mailing (weight = 1 lb.)
ARCHIVAL SERIES 3
Alex D. Krieger (1911–1991) had a long and distinguished career as a North American archaeologist. His first archaeological work was in the Great Basin in California and Oregon, but in 1939, Krieger took the position of Supervisor of the University of Texas Works Progress Administration Laboratory in Austin, Texas (Story 1993:615). For the next 17 years (1939–1956), he worked at The University of Texas, and “within a remarkably short period of time, became a nationally recognized authority on the archaeology of east Texas and adjacent areas” (Story 1993:615).
Dee Ann Story (1993:615) has noted that:
Working closely with the late Clarence H. Webb, Alex developed an encompassing cultural-historical framework for the interpretation of southern Caddoan prehistory by the early 1940s. Although it has been considerably modified over the years, this scheme greatly advanced Caddoan archaeology and is still one of the better examples of the application of the Midwestern Taxonomic System. It was complemented by the Caddoan ceramic typology also formulated by Krieger and Webb. Because [of] their discerning definitions, most of these pottery types continue to be used, often with little modification.
Several of Krieger’s publications on Caddo archaeology remain influential to this day, including Culture Complexes and Chronology in Northern Texas (Krieger 1946, reprinted in 2009 by Gustav’s Library), The George C. Davis Site, Cherokee County, Texas (Newell and Krieger 1949, reprinted in 2000 by the Society for American Archaeology; see Story 2000:1), and “An Introductory Handbook of Texas Archeology” (Suhm et al. 1954, reprinted in 2008 by Gustav’s Library). To my mind, Alex Krieger is the father of Caddo archaeology; he helped fostered my own research interest in Caddo archaeology when I was a graduate student at the University of Washington in the mid- to late 1970s, just as he has kindled interest and archaeological inquiry, based on his writings, for a number of past and present Caddo archaeologists.
In 1993, Krieger’s archaeological library and papers were donated to The University of Texas at Austin (Krieger 2002:xv). Among those papers was an unpublished and undated manuscript entitled “Archaeological Horizons in the So-Called Caddo Area,” apparently written and finished in early 1944 (based on citations in the manuscript). Krieger made mention of this manuscript in the now classic Culture Complexes and Chronology in Northern Texas (Krieger 1946:11, 124, fn16), describing it as a manuscript that served to internally organize the archaeology “of this great region and its affiliations with the Southeast in general.” He even published a short summary of the larger work in the proceedings of the Third Round-Table Conference of the Sociedad Mexicana de Antropologica held in Mexico City on August 25–September 2, 1943 (Krieger 1944a:154–156). Nevertheless, for reasons unknown, this 187 page manuscript was never finalized for publication, although parts of it—in revised form—found its way into various sections of Culture Complexes and Chronology in Northern Texas (Krieger 1946).
In a very real sense, Archaeological Horizons in the So-Called Caddo Area represents a foundational work in Caddo archaeology by Alex D. Krieger in his attempts after 1941 to organize and understand, through the use of the Midwestern Taxonomic System (McKern 1939; Lyman and O’Brien 2003) and his perspectives of artifact typology (Krieger 1944b), the culture history of the Caddo Indian peoples that lived in northeastern Texas, southwestern Arkansas, northwestern Louisiana, and eastern Oklahoma in prehistoric and early historic times. In this same work, he examines cultural connections between the Caddo and aboriginal populations in Mexico, the southwestern United States, the Great Plains, and the Southeast, framing problems and perspectives developed more fully in Culture Complexes and Chronology in Northern Texas (Krieger 1946). His approach is a “balancing of archaeological minutia and the big picture” (Story 2000:5).
Ordering Information: Available, (ix + 76 pp., maps, illustrations, tables) $6.00; Wt.: 9 ozs.
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This publication brings together, and makes generally available for the first time, four reports on late 1950s archeological investigations by The University of Texas (UT) at Ferrell’s Bridge Reservoir—now known as Lake O’ the Pines—in the Big Cypress Creek basin in Northeast Texas. The reports discuss the excavations and arehcological findings at the Whelan site (41MR2), the Dalton site (41UR11), the Ben McKinney site (41MR2), and the Isadore Segal site (41MR1). The principal focus of the reports is on the Late Caddo period (ca. A.D. 1400—1680) occupations at each of the sites, although each site also had Archaic (ca. 8000—500 B.C.) and Woodland (ca. 500B.C.—A.D. 800) period use; the Dalton site was also occupied during Late Paleoindian times (ca. 8600—8000 B.C.).Ordering Information: Available, (xv + 179 pp., maps, illustrations, tables) $15.00; Wt.: 1 lb. 4 ozs.