6. Libraries and Other Academic Resources
The McDonald Observatory, constructed from the proceeds of a bequest by W. J. McDonald in 1929, was originally operated jointly by the University of Texas and the University of Chicago. Today the observatory is maintained and administered by the University of Texas at Austin. Located on Mount Locke in the Davis Mountains at an altitude of 6,800 feet, the observatory sits on 650 acres of land, 400 acres donated by the owners of the Fowlkes and McIvor ranches and 250 purchased from the Eppenauer ranch.
The 2.1-meter reflector was installed in March 1939, and the observatory was formally dedicated on May 5, 1939. For some years the 2.1-meter reflector was the second largest telescope in the world, and it is still among the world's major telescopes. A 0.9-meter reflector built primarily for stellar photoelectric photometry was installed in January 1957.
The development of the observatory and of the 2.1-meter reflector was largely the work of Otto Struve (1897-1963), the first director of Yerkes and McDonald Observatories, and one of the outstanding scientists of his generation. In recognition of his contributions, the 2.1-meter reflector was officially designated "The Otto Struve Reflector of the W. J. McDonald Observatory" in an international dedicatory symposium in May 1966.
Supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the University of Texas, and assisted by the National Science Foundation, a 2.7-meter telescope began operation in early 1969 as the third largest telescope in the world. That telescope has been named the Harlan J. Smith Telescope in honor of the first Texas director of McDonald Observatory. Improved supporting facilities and a 0.8-meter telescope were also constructed in the 1960s. Between 1967 and 1989 a precision 4.9-meter parabolic reflector was in operation at the observatory for radio astronomical studies. A current partnership with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, provides access to the precision 10.4-meter parabolic reflector there. The partnership permits continued and higher frequency studies by researchers and graduate students at the University.
In collaboration with the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, and Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen, the University of Texas at Austin operates a 9.2-meter telescope on Mount Fowlkes at the McDonald Observatory. This telescope, the William P. Hobby-Robert E. Eberly Telescope, has the largest primary mirror of any telescope in the world. The George T. Abell Gallery offers a view of the telescope to the public.
McDonald Observatory produces the daily astronomy radio program, StarDate, which airs on 300 radio stations in the United States and Canada and is heard by ten million people each week. A Spanish-language edition of StarDate, Universo, is broadcast on more than 170 stations. Sternzeit airs in Germany on 40 radio stations. The observatory also publishes StarDate magazine.
The McDonald Observatory Vistors Center at the base of Mount Locke includes an auditorium, a science museum with interactive exhibits, and a restaurant. The center is open daily from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm. Solar viewing sessions are conducted daily and guided tours take place at 11:30 am and 2:00 pm. General admission is $5 for adults and $4 for children. Every Tuesday, Friday, and Saturday beginning at evening twilight, visitors have the opportunity to view the planets, moon, galaxies, and other celestial objects through amateur telescopes. No reservations are necessary. Admission is $8 for adults and $7 for children. More information about visiting McDonald Observatory may be obtained from the McDonald Observatory Visitors Center, HC 75, P O Box 1337, Fort Davis TX 79734, (915) 426-3640 or at http://www.mcdonaldobservatory.org/. A recorded message for seasonal times is available at (877) 984-7827.
The Texas Memorial Museum is located on the University campus at 2400 Trinity Street, between San Jacinto Boulevard and East Campus Drive. Dedicated to the study and interpretation of the natural sciences, with emphasis on Texas, the Southwest, and Latin America, the museum fulfills its purpose through its internationally recognized research collections and laboratories, and its exhibition, education, and publications programs. The fields of geology, paleontology, zoology, and ecology are represented in the museum's programs.
Constructed with state and federal funds, contributions, and proceeds from the sale of Centennial coins sponsored by the American Legion, the museum was opened to the public January 15, 1939. In 1959, by legislative enactment, it became a division of the University of Texas.
The museum is open every day, except major holidays, from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm weekdays, from 10:00 am to 5:00 pm Saturday, and from 1:00 to 5:00 pm Sunday. Admission is free.
Known worldwide for its collection of fossil vertebrates, the museum exhibits examples of the world-famous dinosaur footprints originally from Glen Rose, Texas. Other fossils on display are a thirty-five-foot Cretaceous mosasaur, a pterosaur with a forty-foot wingspan, reptiles and amphibians from the Permian period of the Paleozoic era, and remains of Ice Age mammals.
Through December, 2003, the museum is reconfiguring exhibits on the first and fourth floors. In January, 2004, the first floor will reopen as the Hall of Geology, featuring displays of dinosaurs and fossil animals, rocks, and minerals, as well as an on-site working paleontologist preparing fossil specimens and answering questions from visitors. Also reopening in January will be a Biodiversity Discovery Hall on the fourth floor, featuring a virtual reality environment and hands-on educational tools to help visitors learn about the living world around them. The second floor showcases some of the museum's most prized and unusual specimens. The third floor features the contemporary native fauna of Texas, including many of the state's reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Operating as divisions of the Texas Memorial Museum, but located at the Pickle Research Campus, are the Vertebrate Paleontology Laboratory, containing more than 150,000 fossil specimens and over 6,000 recent vertebrate skeletons; the Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany Collections, containing more than 4,000,000 specimens of fossil and modern invertebrates and fossil plants; and the Geological Collections (rocks, minerals, meteorites, and tektites) containing over 60,000 specimens. The Division of Vertebrates holds approximately 600,000 specimens of fishes and over 61,000 amphibians and reptiles. The Division of Invertebrates houses over 335,000 specimens of insects, arachnids, and mollusks.
The museum is the academic home of natural history courses in ichthyology, herpetology, and paleontology offered in the College of Natural Sciences.
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12 August 2003. Office of the Registrar
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