Sign systems and the meanings that are associated with them are:   a) almost always universal in their application    b)   situated, that is to say they are culture specific   c)  frequently axiological and usually digital   d) never omitted from descriptions of geomantics.


In the film on Body Language that we saw three heads of state sitting together.   Which of the three exhibited the most powerful body language?  a)  Josef Stalin  

b) Franklin D Roosevelt  c)  Winston Churchill    d)  John Foster Dullest   e) Harry Truman   f)  Benito Mussolini 


While there are many definitions and descriptions of culture, the lecturer contrasted two general types, those dealing with:   a) learning vs  transmission   

b)  behavior vs a mental construction of reality   c)  shared elicitation vs structural necessity   d)  cooperation vs  competition.


A meme can be seen as   a) a thought provoking situation   b) a ethnocentric vision    c)  a replicator of cultural information transmitted from one person to another  d) a symbolic and integrated cultural rule that has adapted to hegemonic culture.


Most of the Nacirema people can be said to live  a)  to the west of Moscow    b)  on Japan’s Hokkaido island   c)  south of the Canadian border.  d) south of the Mexican border    e)   east of Portugal’s border with Spain


In the film Body Language, the concept of “norming” was introduced, suggesting that  a) abstract gestures are normal in communication   b) the meaning of an individual’s kinesic activity must be measured against the background of what is normal for that individual    b)  finding the meaning norm in a society for a particular gesture predicts the meaning of that gesture  d) the best measure of non-verbal communication was provided by Norm Sutton, who was the first to employ it   

e)  absence of evidence is not always evidence of absence; one must find the norm.


Which of the following is less likely than the others to characterize the meaning of ‘communication’?   a) communication takes place whenever people attach meaning to behavior, and often takes place out of awareness   b)  communication is a dynamic and systematic process in which meanings are created and reflected in human interaction with symbols   c)  communication is a tissue woven from many strands of human behavior  

d)  communication can be viewed as the transmission of (meaningful) messages from a sender to a receiver. 


Which of the following is not an expression of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis:   a) “it is possible to translate anything from one language into another”   b) "Language is a guide to social reality"   c)  "Our language influences our thought"   d)  "Different languages entail different classifications of 'reality’”   e)  a & c   


Linguistic competence is to performance as:  a) apples are to oranges   b) phonology is to morphology   c)  language is to speech   d) signs are to icons  e)  words are to symbols.


We learned from the film “Do You Speak American:  Up North”  that  a) Texans speak with either a drawl or a twang    b) Americans apparently changed their minds about the prestige value of pronouncing the postvocalic /s/ around the time of World War Two   c)  William Labov has been observing a general vowel shift in speech that is currently taking place all over the United States  d)  in Maine today some lobster fishermen and others still say “ayuh”  [/  éyə’ / ] when they mean ‘yes’   e)  John Fought said he looks forward to a time when people stop nasalizing their /t/ sounds.


In “Do You Speak American: Up North” John Baugh found that where he was doing telephone research   a)  race generally matters more than religion in generating a response from landlords about a rental property   b)  race in and of itself will not be the factor that excludes one from a particular neighborhood, or a house for sale in an affluent community  c) sounding like an African American, a Mexican American, or an Anglo American absolutely predicted the response of landlords to his inquiries about a rental property  d) people got to know his voice.


If it weren’t for language:  a) we would all be able to fly   b) we would be unable to communicate   c) we would be unable to remember anything   d) a & c  

e) none of the above    f)  b & c 


In the film “Do You Speak American: Up North,” what type of English strongly influenced the language of Instant Messaging (IM-ing)?  a) Torre-Style International English   b) midwestern style English   c) spoken affixation   d)  AAVE


Dialects in America  a) speak for themselves   b)  are indicators of one’s social identity   c)  elicit strong opinions in many about the character of their speakers   

d)  are twice as frequent as monolects in frequency    e) tend to be less distinctive as one goes farther west in the U.S.    f) are not generally found in the heartland of the U.S.   g)  b, c & e


Linguistic competence:  a) is not available for direct observation  b) must be inferred from performance   c)  is unavailable to speakers of polysynthetic languages    d) is more often found in competent people    e)  is less dependant on metaphor than linguistic performance   f)  a & b      e)  none of the above


Words do not really possess meaning:   a) they only think they do   b)  it would be more accurate to say that people possess meaning and that words elicit these meanings   c)  meaning is possessed by words    d)  it would be more accurate to say that words possess literacy.


In the film “Do You Speak American: Down South,” what was the largest dialect in America in terms of speaker numbers?   a)  Coastal Southern   b)  AAVE   

c)  CB jargon   d) Inland Southern Sun Belt   e) Louisiana Creole


Which group seems to have a lasting effect on a dialect area according to Walt Wolfram  a) the group with the best hunting skills  b) The first group to settle the area  c) the last group to settle the area   d) the group with the most money  e)  the group with the most prestige.


There are three major sign types according to the lecturer:   a) images, icons, and symbols    b) symbols, signifiers, and forms    c)  icons, indexes, and symbols 

d) those with meaning, those with form, those with activity    e) grumpy, sneezy, and warty


According to Hymes scheme, the speech act can be seen to have   a) 7 functions and 9 components   b)  5 functions and 7 components   c)  7 components and 9 functions   d) seven components, each of which has one function.


One function of the speech act in Hymes’ scheme (not the SPEAKING scheme) is:  a) participants   b) key   c)  referential   d) channel  e) dualistic  f) characteristic


One component of the speech act in Hymes’ scheme is  a) interaction  b) topic   c) standardization   d) repertoire   e) content


Another expression referencing the “phatic communion” function is  a)  perseverence    b)  initiative    c)  contact   d) getting together    e) overeating  f) thanksgiving


Shared interaction, shared knowledge, and shared attitudes are three different foci for definitions of:  a) speech act   b) speech situation   c) speech network 

d) speech community   e) organic decomposition


“Do you Speak American: Down South” suggested that in general  a) truckers have healthy attitudes towards food   b) sound “country”  when they speak to other truckers    c) have a dialect all their own that could be called “truckese”   d)  mostly come from southern states    e)   mostly come from northern states   f)  make good singers  


People in dense speech networks   a) have less frequent contact with each other  b) have more frequent contact and are likely linked by more than one type of bond   c) have less arbitrary contact with each other and are likely linked by bonds of security d) have regular density when using the telephone  e) usually find a wi-fi network to plug into


We learn:   a)  about other people through what they say and how they say it    b)  about ourselves through the ways that other people react to what we say 

c) about our relationship with others through the give‑and‑take of communicative interaction   d) all of the above   e) none of the above   f) b and c 


The word ‘zine’  is   a) more likely to be found in a prescriptive than a descriptive dictionary   b)  more likely to be found in a descriptive than a prescriptive dictionary   c) elicits more comment than a room full of bears   d) is another way of saying “I’m so happy I could be twins”  e)  could be said to melt in your mouth but not in your hands


Cajun    a) is more frequently spoken in Georgia than in Louisiana   b) is another way of playing the accordion on one’s shirt   c) is frequently heard in Mamou, Louisiana   d) was spoken in America before the Pilgrims arrived and almost went extinct, but is slowly reviving    e) is a combination of New York twang and Louisiana slang    


Interrelationships between societal factors and language use are extremely complex because:   a) multiple factors such as gender, age, class, region, race, ethnicity, and occupation frequently account for linguistic differences  b) sociolinguistic "rules" are actually statements of probability rather than rules that can predict any specific single speech occurrence  c)  individual and societal patterning are based on behavior exhibited over time and in diverse situations   d)  individuals are not isolates of sociological factors  (ie. a person is not simply female or male, child or adult, employer or worker) 

e) all of the above   f) none of the above  g)  a, c & d


In one of the films we saw it was suggested that   a)  Philadelphia speech is becoming the new standard for American speech    b)  talking “country” is becoming the new informal speech   c)  dialect differences are generated primarily by social tension    d)  Texans sound about the same as most southerners  

e) The best speech comes from Ohio  


 Relevant features of the speech act component referred to as setting most often involve:   a) participants  b)  location  c) time   d) all of the above  e) none of the above   f) a & b   g) b & c


Another view of speech act components proposed by Hymes is based on a  mnemonic: 



The mnemonic based components include:   a) key    b) argumentation  c) norms    d) tithing   e)  instrumentalities    f) setting   g)  all of the above  

h)  none of the above   i) a, c, e & f    j)  a, b, c, d


Robbins Burling referred to a Turkish beckoning gesture as:  a)  analog rather than digital in nature  b)  one member of a class he calls “gesture-calls”   c)  a kind of universal gesture   d)  digital rather than analog in nature   e)  completely crazy


Burling argues that human language could not have evolved from any animal like form of communication because:  a)  humans are not really animals   b) language is very different from all other animal behavior   c)  language is qualitative and not quantitative    d)  animals have little incentive to communicate with their mouths because they are always eating   e) language lets us refer to things and events provided the timing is right


For humans, in speaking and hearing a language, sounds are, according to Burling:   a) digital  b) not readily available   c)  like words   d) either one phoneme or another   e) intolerable   f) complimentary   g)  b & c   h)  a & d


For expressing our emotions and intentions:  a) the complexity of ordination requires fulfillment   b) it is always better to use language   c) gesture-calls are much better than language   d) one needs to be prepared   e)  it is useful to carry several kinds of conventional imbrication.


Chomsky shifted the focus of much of linguistics away from the differences among languages, according to Burling:  a) in an effort to cover up his shortcomings 

b)  and towards the universal features that are presumed to arise because of the universal nature of the human mind; a mind specifically designed for language  c) to the detriment of linguistic anthropology   d) to see if there were more similarities than differences   e)  in sequential consciousness


Our digital and propositional language requires:  a) lots of context   b)  graded subordination of predicates   c) much more learning than our analog and emotional calls and gestures  d) greater use of the right hemisphere of the brain.


Our massive word repertoire is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human language and humanity according to Burling, and this in turn:  a) leads to a profound paradox   b) depends on our massive corpus callosum in the brain   c) evolved from our cerebral cortex and Broca’s area of the brain  d) depends on the digital code (i.e. duality of patterning, double articulation, two levels of organization).   e) necessitates a massive rethinking of the role of words in language.


Language is, according to Burling,   a) invasively preoccupied with synecdoche   b)  pervasively conventional and arbitrary  c) reputedly replete with neologisms   

d) functionally subordinated to gesture-calls   e) full of prosody and rapture.


Syntax, with its subordination, embedding, relativization and other processes, according to Burling, is:  a) responsible for a great deal of the productivity in language b) isolates phonology from grammar   c)  is basically the same for all languages    d) depends entirely on morphology   e)  is kind of like synonyms and antonyms


Burling feels that humans have a) more control over our language than over our gesture-calls  b) less control over our language than over our gesture-calls  c) roughly the same amount of control over our language and our gesture-calls   d) taken the wrong path in evolution    e) successfully evaded the “language trap”


According to Burling, language allows for:   a) retention  b) submission   c) particularity   d) displacement  


According to Burling, spoken language is superior for every hearing person in that  a) it makes use of the ears and mouth   b)  it interferes less with other activities  c)  and can be understood in the dark   d) a, b & c   e)  b & c


Burling’s “quotable gestures”   are  a)  gestures that can be copied and attributed to others   b) analog gestures conveying “emotions”   c)  digital gestures (gestural analogs of vocal segregates)   d)  moving the first two digits of each hand up and down to simulate quotation marks.  


Burling’s “quotable vocalizations”   are  a) non-existent    b)  spoken phrases like “and I quote”  or “quote, unquote”   c)  digital  (vocal segregates)

e) sounds that humans make in an effort to elicit repetition.


According to Burling, gesticulation accompanies speech and differs from gesture-calls, quotable gestures, and from manual sign language.  Gesticulation’s apparent oral counterpart is used simultaneously with the words and sentences of language, and is intimately related to them.  It conveys less propositional information than words and sentences, but reveals more about the attitudes and emotions of the speaker.  It is  a) the phoneme    b)  intonation (pitch, length and loudness) that accompanies spoken language when not making phonemic distinctions  c) levity in the interest of documentation   d) words and phrases    e) vocal segregates  


Which of the following is/are not a “design feature of language” from Hockett’s article:  a)  rapid fading   b) rhythmic functionality  c)  blending   d)  displacement 

e)  duality of patterning  f)  b & c   


Hockett’s feature called ‘interchangeability’ means:  a) sentence components can be read backwards and understood    b) adult individuals both transmit and receive   c) a speech act can serve multiple functions   d)  a speaker gets feedback from his ears as well as from his interlocutor.


Arbitrariness with respect to language structure generally means that   a) one language is as good as another   b)  reference can be made to things that are remote in space and/or time  c) the relationship between the message carrier and the message is independent of physical or geometric resemblance between the two   d) new linguistic messages are coined freely and easily.


Hocket suggests that if a proto-homind’s limited signal system includes AB = food,  and CD = danger, then if one by accident says AD this could come to mean 

a)  food plus danger   b)  food without danger   c)  danger without food  d) no danger no food  


De Saussure noted long ago that  a) the linguistic sign unites a concept and a sound image   b) a thing and a name   c)  line dancing is very much like bee dancing  

d) a sound’s imprint on the senses is sociological but not psychological.


In comparing the genetic code in DNA, where 4 kinds of nucleotides are combined into sixty-four kinds of codons which can be strung into an unlimited number of genes, Stephen Pinker is referring to  a) the arbitrariness of the sign   b) the sampling problem of human languages  c) the fact that language makes infinite use of finite media   d) the elemental properties of stringing multiples of four together   e) patchwork coding


In place of Robbins’ use of ‘digital’ and ‘analog’,  Pinker uses the words:  a) ‘discrete’ and ‘blending’  b) ‘unitary’ and ‘dimorphic’   c)  ‘fingerwise’  and ‘clockwise’   d) ‘one to many’  and ‘many to one’   e)  ‘latigid’  and ‘golana’


Pinker suggests that because grammar is a “discrete combinatorial system,”   a) an infinity of sentences can be  produced   b) it is a code that is autonomous from cognition  c)  both a & b   d)  neither a nor b


Pinker, in discussing Markov chain models indicates that   a) a human grammar must be a finite state model    b)  a human grammar is not and cannot be a finite state model   c) a human grammar, like a Markov chain, is paradimatically precotypical   d)  a human grammar consists of word lists from which elements are chosen in generating a sentence.


Chomsky invented “colorless green ideas sleep furiously” to show  a)  that nonsense can be grammatical   b)  that improbable word sequences can be grammatical, well formed sentences in English  c)  both a & b   d)  neither a nor b


Which of the following is/are grammatical:   a) That the child died bothered Susie  b)  For John to date a teenager would bother Susie    c)  That for John to date a teenager bothers Susie surprised Cristina   d)   a, b & c    e)  none of the above


Among Pinker’s insights we find that  a)  a sentence is a tree, not a chain  b)  words can be grouped together into phrases like twigs joined in a branch  c)  a tree is modular, like telephone jacks or garden hose couplers   d)  a, b & c    e)  none of the above


Embedding of one sentence within another (or repeated application of the same rule(s)) is called   a)  promotion    b)  codification   c)  recursion   

d) transmogrification   e)  antidisestablishmentarianism 


Pinker says grammar shows us that  a)  there is nothing in the mind that was not first in the senses  b) there is nothing we can sense that is not first in the mind  

c) there is no sense in trying to look at the mind   d)  never mind the senses   e)  the grammar of a language is like an elephant, you can only clip one toenail at a time  f) none of the above.


For Pinker, grammar is a protocol that has to interconnect the ear, the mouth, and the mind, three very different kinds of machine:   a) it needs therefore to be based on three different kinds of logic   b)  it cannot be tailored to any of them, but must have an abstract logic of its own  c)  to be efficient it must be based on a logic that is common to all three.


Pinker says that syntax details have figured prominently in the history of psychology because they are a case where:   a) complexity in the mind is caused by learning   b)  complexity in the mind is not caused by learning   c)  learning is caused by complexity in the mind   d)  b & c    e)  a & c


William Stokoe implies that   a) Neandertalers, because they buried the dead and put artifacts into their graves while having a one tube supralaryngeal vocal tract:   a) must have had a spoken language    b) could not have had a spoken language   c) could have had a spoken language   d)  probably had a gestural language


Australian aborigines a) were unable to speak because of their limited vocal tract  

b) used signing as an alternative to speech in normal conversations rather than only in limited domains   c)  used signing as an alternative to speech only in limited domains   

d) a & b    e)  none of the above


Stokoe argues that:  a)  humans likely added signing (manual language) to their repertoire after having learned to use language orally    b)  there was a thousand to one chance that vocal and manual language came about simultaneously in the course of human evolution   c)  signing is more likely than speaking to have been the means by which language was first transmitted and acquired.


Robin Dunbar provides evidence that    a) gossip is good for you    b)  gossip played a significant part in the evolution of spoken language   c) women tend to talk more about themselves than men    d)  all of the above     e)  a & c    e)  none of the above


Robin Dunbar notes a correlation between group size (hence complexity of the social world) and relative size of neo-cortex. On this basis he suggests that 

a)  primates prefer to live in large groups   b)  generally hunter-gatherers have smaller neo-cortical areas of the brain than city dwellers   c) in evolutionary terms it was the need to live in larger groups that has driven the evolution of large brains in primates  d) primates make the best pets


Robin Dunbar makes the point(s) that  a) neocortex and group size predicts a human group size of about 150   b) social grooming in non-human primate societies takes up to 20 percent of their day   c)  with humans an increase in group size came with a shift in the mechanism for social bonding    d)  all of the above   e)  none of the above


Robin Dunbar suggests that:  a) without language one can only groom one individual at a time  b) with language one can socially groom several individuals at a time  c) language allows for social grooming while traveling, eating, or working   d) all of the above  e) a & b   f)  none of the above   


Robin Dunbar says that:  a) gossip allows for the coordination of social relationships 

b) language may have evolved in the context of social bonding between females 

c) language lets us categorize people into types, so we can relate to them without having to take days to work out the basis of a relationship  d)  all of the above  

e)  a & c   f) none of the above


Who wrote the article in our reader called The Orality of Language?  a)  Brian Street

b)  Niko Besnier    c)  Walter J. Ong   d)  none of the above   e) all of the above


The communication system known as language includes:   a) phonology   b)  morphology 

c) syntax   d) all of the above   e)  a & c   f)  none of the above  


Voice set, voice qualities, and vocal segregates  are part of the communicative system known as:  a) haptics  b)  kinesics   c)   proxemics   d) paralanguage  

e) metalanguage  f)  speech


Vocal segregates in English include:   a)  pause fillers   b)  attention getting expressions (e.g. harrumph)   c)  disapproval sounds (e.g. tsk tsk)   d)  cold signaling sounds (e.g. brrr)   e)  all of the above   f)  a, c & d    g) none of the above


In American sign language, several signs are actually made using a foot and an elbow.   a) true  b) false  


Kinesics in communication includes:   a)  gesture    b) posture   c)  facial expression  d) eye contact   e)  walking   f)   dancing   g)  all of the above   h)   a, b & c 

i)  a, b, d & e   j)   none of the above


Adam Kendon and others have classified gestures and included the following categories:   a)  emblems   b)  illustrators   c)   regulators   d)  all of the above  

e)  a & c     f) none of above


The study of proxemics in communication includes:   a)  distance   b)  height   c) direction   d)  all of above  e)  none of above


The study of haptics in communication includes:  a)  smell   b)  touch   c)  taste   d)   all of the above   e)  none of above


The following elements are parts of communication systems:  a)  clothes   b) cars   c) houses  d)  food   e)  silence   f)  all of above   g) a, b, c, and d   g)  none of above


The phonemes of a language are:  a) the fundamental organizational units of a language’s sound system  b)  minimum meaningful units of sound in that language  

c) classes of allophones, the allophones of each phoneme being in complementary distribution   d)  all of the above   e)  a & b   f)  none of the above


To say that the allophones of a phoneme are in complementary distribution is to say:  that the contexts of occurrence of the allopones are a) combative   b)  brought about through minimal pairs  c) mutually exclusive   d) broadly activated   e)  liable to overreaction 


Allophone sets (alternative variants) and distinctive feature bundles (additive or compositional features) are both ways of defining  a) phones   b) phonemes  

c)  morphemes   d)  words   e)  all of the above   f)  a & b   g) none of the above


Prosodic features of language, also called suprasegmentals, operate primarily on the vowel nucleus, often affect or differentiate meanings, and include a)  stress 

b)  length

c)  attitude  d)  pitch   e) point of articulation  f)   all of the above   g)  a, b & d   h)  none of the above


Morphology is (the study of)  a)  sentences and how they are composed   b)  words and their structure   c)  the building blocks of sound systems    d)  the building blocks of sentences   e)  all of the above  f)  b & c   g) none of the above


Morphemes are generally composed of roots and  a) branches  b) affixes   c)  leaves  d) rootlets    e) all of the above   f)  a & b   g) none of the above

Morphemes can be:  a) lexical   b) free  c)  bound  d) grammatical   e) all of above   f)  a & d    g)  none of aboveo


A morphological typology classifies languages as   a) isolating, agglutinating, or synthetic   b) regular, irregular, and rough   c)  right branching, left of center, and medial   d) hot, cold, and dubious    e) always, never, and sometimes


Syntax is (the study of):  a)  words and their composition   b)  sentences and their construction  c) narratives and their construction   d) only obvious at night


Sentences usually have:  a ) a noun phrase and a verb phrase  b) hierarchical wheels  c) markov chains   d)  stochastic processes   e)   all of the above   f)  none of the above


American sign language employs the following articulatory parameters in producing referential signs:  a) hand configuration   b) place of articulation with respect to signer’s body   c)  movement of hands in space   d)  orientation of hands in relation to body   e)  all of the above   f)  a & c   g)  none of the above


If all human behavior is culturally constructed and all meaning culturally assigned, then:

a) few if any gestures, body postures or facial movements are likely to have universal significance  b) quite a number of gestures, postures and facial movements are likely to be universal in meaning and of primate origin (e.g. signals of enjoyment, distress, threat, and submissiveness)   c)  pigs can fly  d) the gesture theory of language origins is very likely to be true.


Affect displays, as classified by Kendon & Friesen:  a)  are purely emblematic illustrators of conventional gestology   b)  regulate the back and forth of interpersonal interaction   c) are simply facial configurations which display affective states.  They can repeat, augment, contradict, or be unrelated to verbal affective statements   d) are adaptive fragments of aggressive, sexual, or intimate behavior, including “restless movements” of hands and feet, typically done out of awareness.


While an unfamiliar gesture will cause miscommunication, the false decoding of familiar gestures will produce discommunication    a)  true   b)  false    c) not relevant to truth or falsity


*(won’t be used in this class)  Western Apache of Arizona have developed joking routines that play, in part, on what is seen as the intrusive, domineering communicative styles of Anglos (including making direct eye contact with or touching another person while talking to them    a)  This is true   b)  this is an urban legend   c) this is false  

d)  all of the above.


 *(won’t be used in this class)   Dominant people tend to use broad gestures, look or even stare at others, maintain "serious" unsmiling faces, and inhabit wide areas of personal space.   a)  This is true   b)  this is an urban legend   c) this is false   d)  all of the above.  e) none of the above


* (won’t be used in this class) In encounters between unequals, subordinates tend to use restricted, small gestures, avert their eyes when looked at, smile frequently, and allow their space to be encroached on even to the point of being touched.  a)  This is true     b)  this is an urban legend   c) this is false   d)  all of the above. 

e) none of the above


Whereas high-status people tend to enlarge the appearance of their bodies, low-status individuals tend to limit their body images by lowering their heads and keeping their legs together and their arms close to their bodies.   a)  This is true   b)  this is an urban legend   c) this is false   d)  all of the above.  e)  b & c


Generally cross culturally, people of lower status in unequal encounters tend to be more silent than those of higher rank.   a)  This is true   b) this is false  


Silence is an act of nonverbal communication that:   a)  transmits many kinds of meaning, dependent on cultural norms of interpretation   b) in most cultures tells the listener “I have nothing to say at the moment”   c)  among Western Apache is the norm in family interactions   d) among Western Apache is the norm in situations of ambiguity or uncertainty    e)  all of the above   f)  a & d    g)  none of the above


When a Navajo speaker renders “It is only good that I go there”  as the Navajo equivalent of English “I must go there,” it illustrates that:   a) English speakers encode the rights of people control or be controlled by other beings   b) English and Navajo speakers have different attitudes about rights and obligations  

c)  Navajo speakers give beings the ability to decide for themselves without compulsion by others   d)  all of the above    e)  a & c   f)  none of the above


English has many terms expressing coercion: cause, force, oblige, make, compel, order, command, constrain, must, have to, ought to, etc.   By contrast, Navajo doesn’t appear to have words of this sort   a)  true     b)  false


A speaker’s thoughts, beliefs, and action regarding the world are encoded in her  a) vocabulary   b)  grammar   c)  proverbs   d) everyday communicative interaction   e) all of the above    f)   a, b, & d     g) none of the above

One expression of the Sapir – Whorf hypothesis is that a)  "the worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world with different labels attached"  b) “anything in any language can ultimately be translated into another language”   c)  “the relation between language and experience is often misunderstood”    d) “language is a bodacious combination of thoughts that can be mirrored in the mind”   e)  “experience comes first; then language” 


Benjamin L. Whorf was;   a) a lawyer turned linguist    b)  a wall-street broker turned linguist  c) a linguist turned engineer    d)  an insurance inspector turned linguist    


The Hopi language distinguishes direct sensory experience from inferred conclusions based on direct sensory experience and from reports provided by hearsay.    We could call the forms involved   a) validity forms   b) switch reference   c) sensory shifters   d) active formats


Whorf contrasted Hopi with English and concluded that Hopi and English have different ways of conceptualizing:   a)   time    b)  number    c)  color   d)  duration   e) beauty  

f) all of the above  g)  a, b & d   h) none of the above


A colt is:   a) a pre-adult horse    b) a baby horse    c)  a female pre-adult horse   d) a male pre-adult horse   e) a foal  


Cultural interest is reflected strongly in our:   a) thirst for knowledge   b)   chromosomes  c) natural environment   d) naming and classification behavior


Among other things the change in meaning of Tzeltal chih from ‘deer’ to ‘sheep’ illustrates:  a)  deer became more important than sheep over time    b)  sheep became more important than deer over time  c)  cultural interest can change through time   d) if you don’t hurry you could become a sheep   e)  language change lags behind culture change   f)  all the above   g)  b, c & e  h) none of the above


If Tzeltal speakers have the following words required when speaking of the different things being eaten [ lo'   'eat fruit'   (bananas, peaches, oranges, plums, sweet limes), we'   'eat tortillas'  (tortillas, bread, rolls), k'ux  'eat beans'  (hardish individuated objects), ti'   'eat meat'  (& chilies & mushrooms), once might conclude that;  a) Tzeltal speakers like fruit better than meat   b) Tzeltal speakers have numeral classifiers   c)  Tzeltal speakers have a predilection for eating that rivals that of the French   d)  Tzeltal speakers could sort foods according to these categories more rapidly than could English speakers   e)  all of the above   f)  none of the above


A category:   a) can be “fuzzy”   b)  requires no name   c)  can be part of a system of classification  d) doesn’t need to have all members belong to it to the same degree  e) can be conjunctive or disjunctive   f) all of the above    g  none of the above


The fact that one person’s “terrorist” is another’s “freedom fighter” shows that:  a) naming can express cultural values and shared assumptions  b) naming uses up a lot of memory    c)  naming can reveal attitudes of speakers   d)  naming can create compatible attitudes in hearers  e)  naming yields shared technologies  f)  all of the above   g)  a, c & d   h)  none of the above


Which of the following associations between language and cultural meaning have been asserted in one way or another in this class?   a) degrees of specialization and principles of classification within semantic domains indicate cultural interest and discrimination  b) focal meanings of words and prototypes of categories demonstrate ways that people make sense of the multitude of objects and events in their world   c) making culture an object lesson in strategic decisions has several advantages to the spelunker   d)  the symbolic content of language, expressed in words and in metaphoric extensions, transmits and reinforces complex social and cultural messages  e) all of the above   f)  a, b & d


Ethnoscience refers to culturally constructed classification systems that organize knowledge of a society's world/universe (or the study of such systems).   Which of the following does/do not belong in the list?   a) Ethnobotany  (Folk Botany)  b) Ethnozoology (Folk Zoology)  c) Ethnopragmatism  (Folk Pragmatism) 

d)  Ethnomedicine  (Folk Medicine)  e)  Ethnoastronomy   (Folk Astronomy 


If a given language has a basic color term for red, it implies that the language also has a basic term for   a) green    b)  black   c)  blue   d)  yellow   e)  purple  

f)  white   g) a & b    h)  c & e    i)  b & f    j)   d & f


The “best example”  or  “most typical” example, referring to the central sense of a word within the whole range of meaning that it has, is called the   a)  prototype   b)  focal meaning   c) denotation    d)  connotation   e)  metaphor


An idealized internalized conceptualization of an object, quality, or activity would be the   a)  prototype   b)  focal meaning   c) denotation    d)  connotation  

e)  metaphor   f)  metonym


People bring to their social encounters a repertory of knowledge and understandings of their culture as expressed through their language.   Some, but never all, of this will also be in the repertories of their interlocutors.  This repertory has been called  a) speaker’s intent     b)  hearer’s knowledge   c)  cultural expression  

d)  semiotic componentiality   e)  cultural presuppositions


The word ‘man’ as in the English sentence “Man is the only creature having language” is:   a) semantically marked for number and gender   b) semantically unmarked for gender and number  c) grammatically marked for number   d) morphologically unmarked for gender number   e) morphologically marked for gender and number   f)  none of the above  g)  b & d   h) none of the above


If a language has a special suffix on all verbs in the present tense and no affix when those verbs are in past tense, then we could say about that language:  

a) past tense is likely to be earlier in language acquisition  b) present tense is likely to be earlier in language acquisition   c) past tense is more complex than present   d) present tense is marked with respect to past   e)  past tense is marked with respect to present   f)  all of the above   g)  a & d     h)  none of the above


The power of language is not only that values attached to words reveal attitudes of speakers, but also that   a) grammar is sometimes infused with hyperbole 

 b)  syntax can make anything seem like anything else   c) words are used to create compatible attitudes in hearers   d) speaker choice is outlined by interactional symbolism   e)


 It has been said with some validity that all language use has a manipulative aspect to it in the sense that speakers employ words in order to have an effect on hearers, such as to convey information, ask questions, or issue commands, but the effect may be amplified because  a) manipulation is not the same as ossification   b) words are one thing and deeds another, and never the twain shall meet   c)  the words chosen are often not neutral in their connotations  d)  words are never the main information carrying vehicle in a language  


The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another.   It is one thing standing for another on the basis of:   a) contiguity   b)  similarity of some shared attribute(s)    c) shared occurrence in some context   d)  all of the above    e)  a & c    f)  none of the above


A metonym involves one thing standing for another on the basis of:   a) contiguity   b)  similarity of some shared attribute(s)    c) shared occurrence in some context   d)  all of the above    e)  a & c    f)  none of the above


Personification is a common type of   a) metaphor    b)  metonym     c) synecdoche  d)  spork    


When one says  “This business needs some new blood” (and it isn’t someone in a bloodbank speaking),  then they are using a figure of speech known as  

a) metaphor   b)  metonymy  c)  spork   


Body part terms are in many societies extended to inanimate objects and to descriptions of activities (e.g.  “Let’s get to the heart of the matter”)  This is usually referred to as:  a) metaphor   b)  metonymy  c)  spork   d)  partition


Literacy is a system of   a)  secondary signs, based on an oral semiotic system   b) primary signs upon which an oral semiotic system is based  

c)  a tertiary system deriving from both a vocal auditory code and a proto-hominid gesture system   d)  universalist generalizations signifying nothing


Street and Besnier claim that pictographic representation is;  a) true writing   b) pre-writing   c) not true writing  d) not pre-writing  e) all of the above  f) a & b 

g) b & c  h) none of the above


Of three presumed basic types of writing systems, it is generally thought that they evolved in the following order    a) alphabetic, syllabic, logographic   b)  syllabic, logographic alphabetic   c)   logographic, syllabic, alphabetic   d) alphabetic logographic syllabic   e)  logographic, alphabetic, syllabic


Chinese writing is:   a) devoid of sound system references   b) purely pictographic   c)  not devoid of sound system references   d)  not purely pictographic

e)  all of the above   f) c & d   g) none of the above


Viewing literacy as a sociological construct, Street and Besnier identify two models:   a) autonomous and peripheral   b)  ideological   and autonomous  

c) ideological and semiotic   d) semiotic and bureaucratic   e) all of the above    e)  b & d     f) none of the above


Which sociologically constructed model has literacy distinguishing between “primitive” and “civilized”?   a) ideological    b) bureaucratic  c) autonomous   d) semiotic   e) all of the above   f)  a & b    g)  none of the above


What do Street and Besnier suggest should be viewed  not as a monolithic phenomenon, but as a multi-faceted one, whose meaning and consequences depend crucially on the social practices surrounding it?   a)  bureaucracy    b) civilization   c)   literacy    d) phonology   e) all of the above    d)  c & d   e)  none of the above


Taking the two statements:  1)”speech is transient;  writing is permanent”  and  2)  “speech, once uttered, can rarely be revised, or unuttered, but writing can be reflected upon, and even erased at will,  Street and Besnier  suggest that   a) 1 is correct and 2 is incorrect    b) 2 is incorrect and 1 is correct   c)  they are seemingly contradictory   d) they demonstrate the  power of attorney   e)  1 is about writing and 2 is about speech  


Based on studies of Liberian Vai people and rural Appalachian people, literacy is deeply embedded in, and derives its meaning from;  a) the social practices which are most clearly articulated in contexts of learning literacy  b) the people for whom literacy is the most important   c) the people for whom literacy is least important   d) gossip  and textuality    e)  all of the above   f)  a & c    f)  none of the above


One “invented” literacy is that of :   a) Puccini’s alphabet   b) Etruscan hieroglyphs   c)  Coptic logograms  d)  Sequoya’s syllabary


Heath demonstrated, according to Street and Besnier, that in the three Appalachian communities:   a)  economic divisions between literate and non-literate correlated with interests in musical expression   b) age and class are less significant than gender in the learning of literacy   c) practical expression of literary evaluations exacerbate social eructation  d) tensions between the literacy practices of middle-class, white working class, and black working class groups reflect and reinforce inequality, oppression, and hegemony   e)  all of the above    f)  a & c    g)  none of the above


B.L. Whorf  began his essay on the relationship of language to habitual behavior by explaining how  a) some fruits are vegetables and some vegetables are actually fruits   b)  some fires have been caused because the words ‘empty’ and ‘stone’ suggest to many persons that combustability is not a present danger  

c) mutagenic substances are rarely included linguistically in behavioral studies    d) phonology and syntax are clearly linked to the was in which people usually act    


Whorf claims that   a) “ten men” and “ten days”are linguistic elements that are objectively experienced in the same way   b)  “ten days” is about the same time it takes for “ten men” to walk “ten miles”   c)  “ten men” cannot be objectively experienced   d)   “ten days” cannot be objectively experienced.


In SAE there are count nouns and mass nouns.  According to Whorf, in Hopi all nouns have an individual sense and both singular and plural forms, and   a) their “mass nouns” are morphologically marked    b) there are no “mass nouns.”    c)  their “mass nouns” have phonological distinguishers    d)  all their nouns are “mass nouns” 


According to Whorf, in Hopi terms like ‘summer’, ‘winter’, ‘morning’, and ‘sunset’ are not nouns as in English, but rather   a) nonexistent    b) a kind of adverb

c) a kind of adjective   d)  a kind of verb  


While Hopi verbs have no tenses, Whorf insists that the three tense system of English   a) yield considerable speech precision   b) develop points of relevance in the continuum of time   c) colors all of our thinking about time   d)  all of the above   e)  a & b   f)  none of the above


English and other SAE languages, according to Whorf:   a) tend to objectify everything    b) tend to subjectivize everything   c)  characteristically seize the metaphor   d)  express tendency as a matter of restrictive duration


According to Whorf, the Hopi microcosm seems to have analyzed reality largely in terms of  a)  “things” plus modes of existence it calls “matter”    b) events (or “eventing”), referred to in two ways, objective and subjective    c) elemental substances connected  primarily with the corn deity   d) thesis and antithesis, ignoring synthesis    e) ethereal imagery, primarily in the area of  counting


Whorf says that the “quality of reality” that ‘matter’ or ‘stuff’ has for us may correspond to the Hopi:    a) worship of time    b) preoccupation with intensity of social relations   c) emphasis on predicting the future outcome of events   d)  emphasis on preparing or being prepared   e) the ordination of the world of nature


According to Whorf, our objectified view of time is:   a) the reason we invaded Iraq    b)  favorable to historicity and everything connected with keeping records  

c) conducive to driving automobiles     d) very similar to the Hopi view of timel   e) similar to the Navajo perception of time


Whorf avers that: Hopis:   a) use gestures more than the average European   b)  make more spatial reference with gestures than SAE speakers   c) rarely gesture at all   d) find gesturing with the fingers disgusting    e) love to point with their fingers


Whorf concludes that  a)  concepts of ‘time’ and ‘matter’ depend on the nature of one’s language   b)  concepts of ‘time’ and ‘space’ are dependent on one’s language    c)   there is no such striking difference between Hope and SAE about space as about time    d)  ‘space’ is probably apprehended in substantially the same form irrespective of language   e)   all of the above    f)  a, c & d   g) none of the above


People of the Trobriand Islands, according to Dorothy Lee, probably:   a) classify yams on the basis of size and shape    b) apprehend reality nonlineally in contrast to our own lineal phrasing   c) call sisters ave and brothers kainga     d)  call sisters kainga and brothers  ave   e)  appear to favor pattern over lineality in their perception of reality   f)   apparently do not value lineal apprehension of reality    g) all of the above   h)  b, e & f    i)  none of the above


Trobriand language  a)  has no adjectives    b)   has no tenses   c)   describes the village as “aggregate of bumps”    d)  describes the village as two concentric circles   e) all of the above   f)   a, b & c   g)  none of the above


Lakoff and Johnson view the following as conceptual metaphor based on linguistic evidence:   a)  “argument is war”     b)  “cleanliness is health”   c) “time is wasted”   d)   “flags are symbols”    e)  “speed is deadly”   f)  a, c & e    g)  none of the above


Levinson calls the widespread presumption in cognitive sciences that language is essentially innate:  a) “simple nativism”    b) “active  patterning”   c) evidence of a “diseased mind”  d)  the “Sapir-Whorf hypothesis


John Hotchkiss notes that  in Teopisca:   a) people take measures to ensure some degree of secrecy   b) houses are oriented inward   c)  children are used as “spies” (i.e. to obtain information about others)   d) children are in some ways viewed as “non-persons”   e) all of the above   f)  a, b & d   g) none of the above


Hotchkiss believes that privacy and secrecy are strategies for protecting one’s reputation in a small community.   He further suggest that this is the basis for:  a) saying that “too many cooks spoil the broth”  b) the strategic use of children to run errands   c)  some of the outrageous conduct of teenagers    d)  the belief that eating cactus can make you sterile


John Hotchkiss sees children as   a)  fun to be around –because they have less inhibited intuitions than adults   b)  inheritors of culture – because their parents want to pass on the culture to them  c)  “non-persons” – and therefore less likely to be seen as invading privacy or compromising secrecy   d) strong for their age – and therefore able to run errands like getting water   


According to J. Hotchkiss, a child go-between may indeed be aware of the truth, and the adult interlocutor may know that the child knows, but:  a) knowing is not the same as suspecting   b) the adult doesn’t have to be as delicate in behavior in front of a child as s/he would in front of an adult    c)  if the child really knows, then he is very likely to tell his parents what he has seen even if sworn to secrecy by the adult alter  


When a child in Teopisca returns from an errand:   a)  s/he is extensively debriefed by an adult of the household to see what s/he has learned on the errand   b) s/he is given some candy by an adult of the household   c)  s/he is thanked  profusely for running the errand but never given candy   d)   s/he is rarely sent on another errand on the same day.


Hotchkiss focuses on how some children’s activities are   a) outrageous   b) ways of learning the adult culture so they will eventually become adults   c)  part of the cost of doing business in Teopisca   d) integral to certain aspects of social relations among adults     e) having no outcome





Synchrony between the verbal and nonverbal streams of a speaker's language behavior--is called:  a) interactional synchrony   b)  self sychrony   c) mirror synchrony   d) synchronicity   e) all of the above  e) a & b     f)  none of the above 


In the film Do You Speak American: Out West, Cliff Nass said that hearing a mismatch between one’s voice (including accent) and one’s physical appearance leads to  a) humorous situations  b) less stability  c)  more stablity  d) lest trust   e)  more trust    f) temporary insanity  g)  a & c


One of several definitions of context we have discussed is:  a) the textual part of a message  b) everything necessary to understand a message  c) the extra part of settings   d) those individuals who determine which routines are next  e) the way we were


In the film  American Tongues  it was maintained that a person’s accent is  a) better than that of others   b) mostly phonological   c) mostly morphological 

d) a source of irritation for southerners  e) mostly in the mind.


In the film “American Tongues,” what was used as a mask for racism?   A) speech networking   b)  learning German   c) participation in covert discourses 

d) language disparagement   e)  elitism    f)


Which of the following could not be considered a contextual component for an ethnography of communication?  a) schismogenesis   b)  participants   c)  goals  

d)  topics   e) settings  


Close matching between movements of a speaker and movements of a listener is called

a) interactional synchrony   b)  self sychrony   c) mirror synchrony   d) shadowing   e) all of the above  e) none of the above


The film American Tongues illustrated the fact that there are   a) three different dialects in Boston  b)  Boston speech is pretty homogeneous   c) people in Boston who exploit their accents mercilessly and to their advantage   d) Brahmins in Boston who have learned how to sweep streets   


It seems likely that Hymes is correct when he concludes that:  a) some languages are better suited than others to full expression of what the society needs to express  b) languages are all equally suited to full expression of what the society needs to express   c) world languages have evolved to express the full range of human emotions   d)  local languages are notably deficient in psychological opacity  e)  expression trumps comphrehension


American Tongues showed that  a) in times of stress one reverts to forms of speech learned in the early teens.   b) The western theme of Fraternity Ho’ Down parties requires talking with a country accent before getting’ down with them  c) there is no race or class discrimination in the U.S.


Transition to sentential speech in some hypothetical pre-hominid ancestor must have involved:   a) “blending” in the “animal cry”   b)  gradual loss of emotional loading in vocal messages   c)  temporal differentiation prior to spatial disticulation   d)  gradual increase in vocal coding of contextual variables  e) b & d  

f)  a & c   g)  none of the above


Vocatives are  a)  shifters    b) signs that are supposed to get the attention of an individual  c) signs that spell out the names of objects   d) predicates  

e)  a category of individual names


Locating contextual items without actually naming them is done by members of a speech category called  a)  deictics    b) predicates   c) shifters   d)  names  

e) desideratives   f)  a & e

g) a & c   h)  none of the above


Compared to non-autonomous speech, autonomous speech is  a)  more syntactically complex   b) more linguistically explicit   c)  less dependent on paralinguistic and kinesic signals   d)  less dependent on background information possessed by the hearer   e)  all of the above   f)  a & c 

g)  none of the above 


Non-autonomous speech is like Bernstein’s  a) modal synthesis   b)  elaborated code  

c) conversational postulates   d)  restricted code    e)  face-threat acts    f) uncle


The greater the psychological difference, or distance, between communicating individuals, the greater the need for   a) sympathetic prosthesis  b)  autonomous speech   c)  watchfulness     d) restricted code


The evolution of human societies has been in the direction of  a) language diversification  b) more people   c)  larger speech communities   d)  increasing social differentiation   e) increasing complexity   f)  autonomous symbol systems  g)  all of the above   h)  none of the above


The following are demonstrable characteristics of form and function in language:    a)  form follows function   b)  a variety of forms can serve the same function 

c)  the same form can serve a variety of functions  d) On occasion use of a form for one function excludes its use for certain others  e)  a given form can serve no more than three functions  f) a formal function is usually a routine   g)  b,  c  & d   g) all of the above   h) none of the above


Which of the following correlates meaningfully with segmentation of the speech community and also with different contextual elements?   a)  halitosis   b) poverty  

c)  linguistic variation   d) autonomous speech   e) speech components  


Which of the following could be considered part of the communicative context of a “text” ?   a)  setting & Scene   b)  participants  c) ends  d)  act sequence  

e)  key   f) norms    g) all of the above     h) a & d   i) none of the above


Settings, as distinct from context, can:   a) help define events, invoking some behaviors, restricting others    b) can be classified along a continuum of formality  

c) are open ended and non-autonomous   d)  be reduced to spatiometric parameters   e)  all of the above   f)  a & b   g) none of the above


The following characteristics of formality are apparently universal:   a)  increased structuring  b)  consistency of co-occurrence choices   c)  emphasis on personal identities of participants  d)  diffuse and flexible norms for interaction   e)  all of the above   f)  a & b   g)  none of the above


Back-channel cues are   a)   elements of topic development   b) always non-verbal   c) always vebalized   d)  signals of active listenership  e)  subgeneric vocal specifiers   f) all of the above  g)  b & d    h)  none of the above


Depending on the language, placement of values along dimensions of power and of solidarity have been found in:   a)  a kind of referential limbo   b) Alaska  

c)  Canada  d)  terms of address  e)  pronominal usage   f)  honorifics   g)  all of the above   h)  d, e, & f     i) none of the above


Reciprocal use of TLN or FN  in the US references the social dimension of    a) power   b) arrangement   c)  solidarity   d) grammaticality   e) a & c     f)   all of the above.


Non-reciprocal use of TLN or FN  in the US references the social dimension of  a) power    b) arrangement   c)  solidarity   d) grammaticality   e) a & c     f)   all of the above.


Use of  first name in US address underlyingly means  a)  either intimacy or condescension   b) both intimacy and condescension   c)  neither intimacy nor condescension   d)  deference or distance   e)  a & d    f)  none of the above


Use of TLN in US address underlyingly means:  a)  either intimacy or condescension   b) both intimacy and condescension   c)  neither intimacy nor condescension   d)  deference or distance   e)  a & d    f)   none of the above


The pronouns of power and solidarity have been referenced in this class as:   a)  P & S   b)  T & V   c)  1st person and 2nd person pronouns    d)  speaker and hearer   h)  Him  and Her


Reciprocal use of the 2nd person pronoun in European languages stresses:  a) active listenership  b) synchronicity in interaction   c)  equality of participants  

d) power sharing   e)  all of the above    f)  none of the above


Non-reciprocal use of the 2nd person pronoun in Romance languages and China stresses: a) active listenership  b) synchronicity in interaction   c)  equality of participants   d) power sharing   e)  all of the above    f)  none of the above


John Austin has made a 3 way distinction among utterances based on the notion that the speech act accomplishes goals.  He has identified the following kinds of acts:   a)  active, inactive, and synthetic  b) ends, means, and divisors   c) locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary  d) polite, clear, and mannerly   e) official, unofficial, and arbitrary   


John Austin classified speech acts in terms of their purpose and effect.  With respect to the locutionary act, the focus is on  a)  the speaker’s intentions   b) exactly what is said   c) the consequences of the speech act   d)  the end result of the performance   e)   all of the above  

f)  c & d   g)  none of the above


An illocutionary act is the act performed in saying something; here the focus is on:  a)  the speaker’s intentions   b) exactly what is said   c) the consequences of the speech act   d)  the end result of the performance   e)   all of the above  

f)  c & d   g)  none of the above


Broadcast transmission and directional reception of messages, according to Hockett is characteristic of:   a)  humans and bees but few other animals  b)  humans and non-human primates only with rare exceptions   c)  most animals   d) very intelligent people   


In pointing to rapid fading as a design feature in some communication systems, Hockett is excluding:   a)  chimpanzees, gorillas, and capuchin monkeys   b)  animal tracks, spoors, and chemical signs in communication  c)  elephants, tapirs, and pachyderms    d)  speech,  paralanguage, and subvocal tongue movements   


Hockett refers to the fact that in some communicative systems new linguistic messages are coined freely and can be understood in context.   He names this design feature:   a) coininess   b) understandability   c) duality of patterning   d)  parsimony   e) openness (productivity)    f) displacement


Hockett singles out the ability in a communicative system of meaningless elements to pattern and in combination to form meaningful messages as important in human language.  He calls this:   a) productivity  b) context formation   c) duality of patterning   d)  parsimony   e) openness (productivity)   f) displacement


Hockett claims that non-human animals do not appear to be capable of transmitting information about their own or other systems of communication, and calls the ability to do so:  a) prevarication   b) displacement   c)   openness   d) reflexiveness   e) transmutability 


Apologies are  a) a form of hyper politeness  b) linguistic routines   c) topically interactive   d) stressful at all times   e) the main form of social politeness

f) messages signaling active engagement with anaytic precepts    g) conversational postulates   h)  a form of conversational analysis


In all situations, speakers have options of ways to express themselves.  Their choices

in expression reveal underlying cultural models of   a)  behavior   b) rights   c) obligations 

d) biological classification    e)  phenotypic transmutation    f)   all of the above   g)  a, b & c


In conversation analysis an adjacency pair is considered to be:   a) when two parties speak at the same time   b)  linked utterances based on turn taking   c)  when a turn is allocated by the speaker  d)  when a turn is allocated by the hearer   e)  two related turn entry devices   e)   a & e   f)  none of the above


Greetings have been said to function   a) to mark the transition to a condition of increased access   b) to acknowledge the presence of others   c) to begin communicative interactions  d)  to establish a shared perceptual field  e)  to identify interlocutor as a distinct being worth recognizing  f)  all of above   g)  a, b & e


Greetings, compliments, and condolences can all be thought of as   a) routines   b)  creators of social solidarity   c)  negotiators of social solidarity   d)  face threat acts    e)  warnings of inclement social weather   f)  maxims for social interactions   g)  all of the above   h)  a – d  


Solicitudes tend to   a) convey social distinctions    b)  usually occur in first person   

c)  be formulaic   d) use imperatives    e)  convey only temporary good wishes to the addressee   f)   all of the above   g)  c, d & e   h)  none of the above


H.P. Grice articulated four important maxims regarding conversational ideals that can be summarized as maxims of   a) quantity, quality, relevance, and manner   

b)  politeness, relevance, manner, and truth    c)  perspicacity, opularity, ambiguity, and obscurity   d) brevity, independence, participation, and truthiness   


H.P. Grice felt that conversational norms are best served by  a) saying a bit more than necessary   b)  saying a little bit less than desired   c)  saying neither too much nor too little   d) saying things that are counterfactual   e) omitting things that are embarrassing   f)  giving the benefit of the doubt to one’s interlocutor   g)  all of the above   h)  a & f                                  


Departures from Grice’s norms are   a) marked   b)  often noted by the speaker prior to making the departure   c)  sometimes signaled in advance by the word ‘but’  d) unmarked e) whispered    f)  all of the above  g)  a – c   h) none of the above   i) d & e


Robin Lakoff formulated two rules of pragmatic competence:   a) be relevant and be polite  b) be concise  and be polite    c)  be relevant and be clear   d)   be clear and be polite   e)  be tolerant and be polite   f)  give options and be polite    g) don’t impose and be polite


Lakoff suggests that when rules of pragmatic competence conflict,   a) politeness usually supercedes clarity   b) giving options usually supercedes being friendly   

c)  activity usually comes out the winner   d)  clarity usually supercedes politeness.


Lakoff opines that in most informal conversations  a) actual communication of important ideas is secondary to reaffirming and strengthening relationships   b)  relationships take a back seat to truth   c) the structure is what is important, the means by which it is achieved is secondary   d)  time is rarely a consideration   

e)  all of the above   f)  b & d   g)  none of the above


To Brown and Levinson  politeness is concern with face, which involves   a)   an individual's self-esteem   b)  the public image every person wants to claim for him/herself   c)  the desire to be approved or respected   d)  the desire to be unimpeded in one’s actions   e)  the desire not to be imposed upon   f)  all of the above   g)   a, b & d   


Brown and Levinson suggest that in mitigation or redress of a face threat act,  a)  negative politeness provides greater redress than positive politeness   b)  positive politeness provides greater mitigation than negative politeness   c)  off record politeness gives greater mitigation for an FTA than negative politeness    d) positive politeness provides greater mitigation than off-record  politeness  e)  a & c   f)   b & d    g)  a & d  


Requests, orders, offers, dares, and expressions of anger are said by Brown and Levinson to be FTAs to  a)  hearer’s positive face   b) speaker’s negative face  

c) hearer’s negative face   d) speaker’s positive face   e)  none of the above  


Criticism, accusation, insults, contradictions, and boasts are said by Brown and Levinson to be FTAs to  a)  hearer’s positive face   b) speaker’s negative face 

c) hearer’s negative face   d) speaker’s positive face   e)  none of the above                                                                  


Thanking, accepting offers, making unwilling promises  are said by Brown and Levinson to be FTAs to  a)  hearer’s positive face   b) speaker’s negative face 

c) hearer’s negative face   d) speaker’s positive face   e)  none of the above  


Apologies, confessions, and admissions of responsibility are said by Brown and Levinson to be  FTAs to  a)  hearer’s positive face   b) speaker’s negative face 

c) hearer’s negative face   d) speaker’s positive face   e)  none of the above  


In the film “Brain Sex,” what was linked to producing homosexual offspring?   A) excess testosterone hormone   b) stress   c) sophistication   d) DES issues

e) Turner’s Syndrome   f) excess progesterone hormone 


Three social factors for speaker selection of linguistic mechanism to accomplish an FTA include a)  race, religion, and social class   b)  norms, platitudes, and energetics   c)  power, solidarity, and degree of imposition entailed by FTA   d)   poverty, emotional satisfaction, and the degree of imposition entailed by the FTA 


A speech community is a group of people who:   a)  interact by means of speech   b) share knowledge of the rules for conduct and interpretation of speech  c) share a set of social attitudes towards their own and others language and speech   d) all of the above   e) a & b    f) none of the above


In the US, weak social networks predominate among  a)  the upper class  b)  the middle class  c)  the lower class   d)  b & c    e)  none of the above


Close-knit social networks are more typical of  a)  upper class communities   b) middle class communities  c) lower-class communities  d)  all of the above   e)  a & b


Social distinctions among community members influence   a) the production of speech   b) the interpretation of speech   c)  the evaluation of speech   d) the importation of speech  e)  all of the above  f)  a, b & c     g)   none of the above


Social class systems are based on:  a)  conflict   b)  transparency   c)  articulation   d)  language   e) differentiation   f) inequality  g)  all of the above  

h)  a, b & c     i) a, e & f    j) none of the above


In the US, class:  a)  is reflected in language use    b)  membership is potentially fluid and fluctuating   c)  is reinforced by language use   d)  is structured in

terms of economic, political, and social relations   e)  serves as a basis for the legal system    f)  all of the above  g)  a – d    h)  b – e     i)  c & d


William Labov studied postvocalic r usage in   a) Baltimore   b)  Philadelphia   c)  New York City   d)  San Francisco   e)  a & b    f)   a & d    none of the above


From his study of postvocalic r, Labov concluded that this variable is:  a)  a linguistic marker of social stratification   b)  a mask for the denigration of speakers  

c)  a good way to find out where women’s shoes are being sold   d)  statistically more prominent in the speech of higher classes 

e)  all of the above   f)  a and d    g)  b & c   h)  none of the above


In his study of postvocalic r use in three department stores, Labov assumed that:  a) workers identified with the prestige of their employers and customers   b)  Saks is less prestigeful than Macy’s   c)  level of awareness would not correlate with –r pronounciation   d)  S. Klein was a well regarded grocery store   e) a & d   

f)   c & d   g) none of the above, for he made no assumptions at all


Labov concluded that crossover behavior is  a) an indicator of a stable linguistic variable   b)  a reliable indicator of linguistic change   c)  an indicator of linguistic marking of overt behavior   d)  a reliable indicator of occupational stratification    e)  evidence of linguistic insecurity   f)  c & d   g) b & e


Labov found that  a) race was a significant factor in postvocalic r frequency   b)  gender was a significant factor in his postvocalic r study  c)  class was a significant factor in postvocalic r use  d)  religion was a significant factor in his postvocalic r study    d)   all of the above   e) none of the above


Labov found varying amounts of –r pronounciation, the largest amount occurring in  a) reading speech   b)  casual speech   c)   minimal pairs    d)  r-directed speech


 Labov has conducted studies indicating that members of all classes increase their use of -r as context focused more attention on pronunciation, showing that they are aware of the same general norm giving value to -r pronouncing    a)  true   b)  false   


Labov showed that in speech in the most careful contexts, members of the second highest class use more -r than do members of the highest group, demonstrating that LowerMiddleClass speakers are most sensitive about negative evaluations of their own speech and most desirous of achieving prestige norms.  This illustrates the phenomenon that Labov called   a) class warfare   b) class based homogeneity   c)  crossing over   d)  free variation    e)  a & d     f)  none of the above


"The correlate of regular stratification of a sociolinguistic variable in behavior is uniform agreement in subjective reactions towards that variable"   This statement could have been made by a)   Leroi Jones   b)  Karl Marks   c)  William Labov   d)  Robin Dunbar   e)  William Ong   f)  Walter Rostow   g)  Dell Hymes   h)  none of the above


In England Peter Trudgill studied  the use of phonological variables and found that for all the features studied higher class speakers use more non-standard forms, meaning that they use fewer standard pronounciations   a)  true    b)  false    c)  indeterminate


In Scotland, Ronald Macauley, in a study of 5 phonological features, concluded that  a) speaker use of prestige variants was consistently ranked with their occupational stratification   b) women employed more prestige pronunciations than men of their age group  c) use of the glottal stop increased with age   d)   men used more pitch variation and speed variation than women   e)  a and b   f)  b and c    g)  c & d    h)  none of the above


One of the surprising findings of Jacquelyn Lindenfeld is that speakers are rarely able to  manipulate their use of language in order to emphasize their class identity in different speech situations    a)  true   b)   false    c)  false in fact, but true in intent


Basil Bernstein identified a dichotomy of speech styles that he labeled   a) autonomous and non-autonomous   b)  elaborated and restricted   c)  autonomous and restricted   d)  elaborated and non-autonomous   


According to Bernstein,   a)  because members of different social classes use different modes of  expression, they develop different patterns of thought and

thus understand their world in different ways  b)  one of the effects of the class system is to limit access to elaborated codes  c)  use of explicit references in elaborated codes can allow speakers to think about meanings and relationships separate from their immediate context, potentially permitting them to enter into a reflexive relationship to the social order   d)  all of the above   e)  a & b


What has been called the elaborated code is   a)  used by the middle class  b) expresses universalistic meanings using nouns, adjectives and verbs with explicit referents   c) relies less on presuppositions   d)  expresses “particularistic” meanings using more context-bound words, pronouns, and deictics   e)  accompanied by more gestures and other non-verbal signs   f) relies more on presuppositions    g)  all of the above   h)  a, b & c    i)  d, e & f    j)  c & d


African American Vernacular English is, according to Labov:   a) a separate language, related to English, that should be called Ebonics   b)  a Creole language composed of African dialects mixed with English and French   c)  a subsystem of English with a distinct set of phonological and syntactic rules that are now aligned in many ways with the rules of other dialects of English   d) a subdialect of Cajun dialect   e)  a & b   f)   b & c   g) c & d   h)  none of the above


AAVE  exhibits   a)  a highly elaborated aspect system, quite different from other dialects of English   b)  a tendency to delete postvocalic r    c)  a tendency to delete the copula wherever it can be contracted in Standard English   d)  a tendency to reduce word final consonant clusters   e) a tendency to use “like” as a pause filler    f) deep structure rules almost identical to those found in Bantu languages   g) tense constructions that add –izzle to the ends of a selection of nouns  h)  all of the above   i)  a , b, c &  d    j)  a, c & f   k)   b, d & g  


In AAVE   a)  men tend to retain the copula with greater frequency than women  b)  women tend to retain the copula with greater frequency than men   c)  men and women tend to delete the copula with about the same frequency  d)  men and women of dainer flats tend to delete the copula  e)  men and women of higher classes tend to delete the copula    f)   all of the above   g) b & d    h) a & e    i) c & e


John Rickford in his article Suite for Ebony and Phonics said that  a) some languages have dialects    b)  all languages have dialects     c) dialects develop when prejudice and discrimination fester in a society   d)  a dialect is a language with an army and a navy  e)  ebonics is slang   f) dial extra censory trapection


Marcyliena Morgan  maintains that Hip hop culture involves youth socialization that   a) explicitly addresses racism, sexism, neoliberalism and class   b) explicitly addresses racism, sexism, capitalism, and morality   c) explicitly critiques the practices of rapping, rocking, and rolling   d) drops phat tracks


There are numerous speech differences between men and women in our society.  They are   a)  mostly connected to phonemic gradation   b)  more often  a matter of grammar   c)  mostly in the form of statistical variables   d) generally based on gender preference  rather than gender exclusive speech differences  

e)  mitigated by strong referential notations    f)  evidence of a lack of professionalism   g)  remnants of institutionalized sex antagonism   h)  all of the above  

i)  b & c  j)  c & d   k)  d & e   l)  e & g


Mock Spanish as Rusty Barrett characterizes it,   a) has semantic pejoration of Spanish words  b) uses obscene Spanish in place of English equivalents 

c)  lacks cojones   d)  overuses Spanish grammatical elements   e)  has hyper Anglicization (parodic pronunciation)   f) all of above   g)  none of above 

h)  a, b, d & e  .


Females in our society often blunt a direct statement by means of   a)  heuristic devices such as harmonious interference   b) refractory engagement   c)  hedge words    d)  tag questions   e)  modal auxiliaries   f)  color terminology   g)   a & b   h)  b & c    i)  c & d    j)   d & e   k) e & f


The use of such devices as tag questions and hedge words  a) is highly valued by men    b) can undermine the speaker’s appearance of competence and confidence   c)  arises from grammatical insecurity   d)  has its genesis in complementary dualism   e)  a & b    f)   c & d 


It is probably a universal fact that in all cultures   a)  gender is a social construct  b)  there are differences in how men and women communicate  c)  the genders are socially distinguished   d)  wherever societal distinctions are made among community members, linguistic and stylistic variations arise to reflect and reinforce existing segmentation   e) all of the above    f)  a & c   g)  b & d   h)  a, b, and d 


In American English  a)  few if any patterns are exclusive to either gender  b) the inventory of sounds for men and women is the same, but there are different  frequencies with which men and women use particular sounds  c)  John Fischer found gender related patterns in the pronunciation of the final consonant in ‘fishing’   d)  John Fischer found formality related patterns in the pronunciation of the final consonant in ‘fishing’    e)  all of the above   f)  a, b & c   g)  c & d  


Several studies show women's greater use of standard pronunciations, and quicker and more marked style shifting to the standard in increasingly formal speech contexts.  One explanation says this is due to    a) a genetic predisposition to use standard pronuciation   b)  hormonal production in women that favors style shifting because men and women have different brains   c)  women’s linguistic insecurity reflecting their social insecurity in a hierarchical system of gender in which they are relegated to second place    d) the fact that formality and femininity go hand in hand


When Trudgill asked them about their pronunciation, women tended to claim greater use of standard pronunciation than actually occurred in their speech whereas men tended to claim greater use of the nonstandard than actually occurred in their speech.  Trudgill explained this saying that  a) covert prestige is given to male behavior that rejects the standard   b)  overt prestige is given to female behavior that adopts the standard   c)  people cannot evaluate their own behavior very well   d)  women are more modest than men   e)   all of the above   f)  a & b   g)  b & c  


In general, women use  a)  more dynamic intonational contours than do men  b)  a wider range of pitches within their repertory than do men c)  a more rapid and marked shift in volume and velocity than do men   d)  all of the above   e)  a & c   f)  b & c g)  none of the above


Dynamic intonational patterns are interpreted by American English speakers as indicating  a) stunted morality  b)  emotionality and natural impulses  c)  control and restraint   d) an attempt to escape from boredom   e)   all of the above.


According to some, women and men are not viewed simply as different with respect to language behavior; instead, women's behavior is a)  negatively evaluated in relation to male norms  b) viewed as unstable and unpredictable   c)  seen as the gold standard for ideological commerce   d)  all of the above   e)  a & b


Women's frequent changes in pitch and volume may serve the important function of  attracting and holding the listener's attention.  Women may need this device more than men because of   a)  their desire to be viewed as attractive   b)  their interest in being seen as attentive   c) their relative powerlessness in a male dominated society  d)  their frequent contact with young children who are not yet socialized to attend reliably to verbal signals   e)  all of the above   f)  a & b  

g)  c & d   h)  a & c   i)  b & d


Because rising pitch is an indicator of a question in American English, some linguists such as Robin Lakoff believe that when women use rising pitches, they are interpreted as  a) hortatory  b)  hesitant   c)  uncertain   d)  lacking assertiveness  e) attempting to be inclusive f) asserting dominance   g) a, b & c   h)  b, c & d  

i)  c, d & e  j) d, e & f


Regarding tag questions it has been found that  a) women more often use tags for addressee-orinted goals   b) men more often use tags for speaker-oriented goals   c)  men more often use tags for addressee oriented goals   d)  women more often use tags for speaker oriented goals  e)  women and men use tags with the same frequency for both speaker and addressee oriented goals  f)  a & b   g)  b & c  h)  c & d   i) none of the above


Men and women sometimes employ linguistic styles characterized by indecisive, imprecise, or mitigated speech.  These traits are perceived to be more typical of women.  They are, in actuality, a)  more likely to be used by men (given contextual similarities) 

b)  more likely to be used by women (given contextual similarities)  c)  more likely to be used by people of either gender in subordinate roles  d) to be used with very limited frequency   e)  a & c  f)  b & c   g)  b, c & d 


A common cultural stereotype describes women as being more talkative than men.  a)  this turns out to be true  b) an experiment in describing pictures showed men talking on average four times long as women  c)  at a faculty meeting men were clocked speaking up to four times as long as women  d)  men prefer to talk about their emotions and feelings according to an experiment using bicycles   e)  all of the above   f)  a & b  

g)  b & c   h)  c & d  


In Yana, a California Indian language Sapir identified men’s speech and women’s speech.   a) men’s speech is only used by men, and only to other men  

b) women’s speech is used by women to men and women and by men to women   c) men’s speech is marked with respect to women’s speech in most cases 

d)  men’s speech uses more elaborate forms than that of women   e)  women’s speech is more elaborate than that of women   f)  all of the above  g)  a – d  

h)  b – e   i)  none of the above


Falsetto voice is employed as a respect device used by Carib women while raised pitch is used as a respect device by men.    a)  true    b)  false   c)  we have no way of knowing


Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico employ a kind of whistle speech that women can understand but that only men use.   a)  true   b)  false    c)   there is no way of knowing  


The nerd according to Mary Bucholtz  is   a) ideologically gendered and racialized   b) unable to use grammatically correct English   c) prone to use slang among themselves   d) characterized by a set of practices, stances, and engagements   e) markedly hyperwhite    f) a, d & e   g) none of the above 


In Japanese some of the gender exclusive differences in speech reflect a message

of social inequality, unlike Chukchee   a) true   b)  false  


In Chiquita , a Bolivian indigenous language, in women's speech all nouns are treated the same, but in men's speech nouns divided into two classes marked morphologically.   a) one class consists of nouns referring to men and supernatural beings    b) the other consists of nouns referring to women and animals  c) men’s speech is employed by men only in speaking to other men  d) women never use men’s speech  e) men never address women with men’s speech   f)  all the above   g)  a, c, d & e   h) b, c, d & e  


Bodine suggests that Chiquita men have tried to use language to symbolically elevate themselves, but Chiquita women have refused to go along with it.   a)  true  

b)  false


The film To Make the Balance is about   a) three orphans who end up as governors of their own states in Colombia   b) how justice is officially administered in a Mexican village    c) how illegal drugs are legally dispensed in Ohio    d) how a state senator lost his job over allegations that he was soliciting favors from a large pharmaceutical company   e)  a small band of wack players are shown up by fly cats when missing props are noticed.


The film Brain Sex singled out the following as particularly important to gender   a) the left and right brain    b)  biological gender    c)  hormones  d) diet  

e)  play activities  f) parental occupation


Gender exclusive  patterns of speech in languages of the world generally involve either a small number of sounds, a few morphological markers, or a handful of words.  No exclusive differences in sentence construction have been reported.  Nevertheless, gender‑exclusive forms have great social significance, reflecting and reinforcing cultural models of gender distinctions.   a)  true   b)  false  c)  first part is true, second is false


The film Brain Sex claims that there is such a thing as   a) a person with only one x chromosome   b) a person with only one y chromosome   c)  a person with two y chromosomes   d) a person with three x chomosomes   e)  a person without chormosomes


In many cultures, where polite speech is most typical of women (e.g. American/Anglo societies, Japan), it is interpreted as a signal of deference and lower status.   However, in other societies (e.g. Java), polite speech (including humility) is manipulated to convey messages of power and superiority   a)  true   b)  false  


Malagasy   (Madagascar) has two speech styles.  One is used in rituals and formal secular sitution.  This one is a) generally only used by men  b) referred to as resaka  c) indirect of reference  d) referred to as kabary   e)  used only by women   f) used in a direct and open manner   g   a, b & c   h)  a, c & d   i)  c, e & f  

j)  none of the above


In Madagascar, where Malagasy is spoken,  a)   women dominate situations where directness is called for    b)   men  dominate situations where indirectness is desirable  c) the society is egalitarian    d)  all of the above   e)  a & b   f)  b & c  g)  a & c


The film Brain Sex claimed that  a)  rats could eat people if given enough time  b) PMS could induce a woman to commit suicice   c) Sexual deposition is genetically equivalent to gender reorientation  d) adopted children are more likely to murder their parents than biologically produced children. 


The Kuna of Panama have a basically egalitarian society according to Joel Sherzer.   a) economic and social responsibilties of women and men are seen as distinct, yet complementary and harmonious   b) men supply food and women perform domestic labor   c) the genders have different speech genres   d)  women usually conduct political oratory and ritual incantations  e)   men usually engage in “tuneful weeping” (chanted to dying and deceased relatives  f)  all of the above  

g)  a, b & c  h)  b, c & d     i)  c, d & e


Among the Kuna, according to Sherzer, each gender has occasion to employ elaborate rhetorical styles, replete with metaphor and symbolic allusions, and each uses chanting and rhythmic patterns or tunes in certain contexts, and both men and women speak directly and confidently when voicing their opinions.  

a)  true   b)  false   c) partially true   d) mostly false 


The Subanun drinking encounter provides a structured setting for    a) the periodic fights for which the Subanun are well known   b) drinking a little and talking a lot    c)  talking a little and drinking a lot   d)  defining, extending, and manipulating one’s social relationships through the use of speech   e)  a & c    f)  none of the above


Subanun beer is drunk   a) directly from the keg   b)  directly from the mouth of a large gourd   c)  through bamboo straws    d)  only by women    e)  all of the above   f)  a & c    g)  none of the above


Discourse at a Subanun festive gathering  a) is focused on drinking a kind of beer (a fermented beverage)   b)  proceeds in three stages    c)  includes invitation, gossip, deliberation, and verbal art display  d)  is important to a male’s role in the society    e)  all of the above   f)  a & d    g)  none of the above


The Subanun drinking encounter provides a structured setting for    a) the periodic fights for which the Subanun are well known   b) drinking a little and talking a lot    c)  talking a little and drinking a lot   d)  defining, extending, and manipulating one’s social relationships through the use of speech   e)  a & c    f)  none of the above


Subanun beer is drunk   a) directly from the keg   b)  directly from the mouth of a large gourd   c)  through bamboo straws    d)  only by women    e)  all of the above   f)  a & c   g)  none of the above


Discourse at a Subanun festive gathering  a) is focused on drinking a kind of beer [a fermented beverage]   b)  proceeds in three stages    c)  includes invitation, gossip, deliberation, and verbal art display  d)  is important to a male’s role in the society   e)  all of the above   f)  a & d    g)  none of the above


In “Greetings in the Desert”  Grimshaw and Youssef  discuss greetings of    a)  Arabs   b) Bedouins   c)  Tuaregs   d)  Namibians   e)  Guaqueros


In researching “Greetings in the Desert”  the authors were hoping to  a)  uncover secrets of  life in the desert   b) find out how oases became important components of desert greetings   c) propose some universals about greetings   d)  none of the above


The following pertain(s) to the desert dwellers studied by Grimshaw and Youssef   a) news and companionship are highly valued in the wilderness  

b)  strangers may be or become enemies   c)  sensitivity to cues of identity has high survival value   d)  adult males must learn complex rules for the interpretation of verbal and other behaviors in the accomplishment of greetings and information exchange   e)  all of the above   d)  b & c   e)  a & d    

f)  none of the above


William Labov says linguists believe  a) genetic deficits explain poor performance of lower-class inner city children   b) environmental factors better explain performance of lower-class inner city children   c)  inner city children don’t necessarily have inferior mothers, language, or experience, but language and perhaps other aspects of inner city life are different from the standard anglo classroom culture and are not always properly understood by teachers and psychologists  

d)  we must begin to adapt our school system to the language and learning styles of the majority in the inner-city schools   e)  b  & c

f)  c & d   g)  none of the above


William Labov takes educational psychologists to task for their ignorance his article on Black intelligence    a)  true   b)   false    c)  he takes teachers to task, but not educational psychologists.


According to Keenan,    a)  only men are expected to cultivate kabary speech   b) Women use one kind of power and men another    c)  women are associated with direct  criticism and haggling in markets tending to be direct and open in manner   d)  men tend to conduct themselves with discretion and subtlety   e)  all of the above   f)  c & d     g)  a & c    h)  none of the above



FINAL EXAM   (it is comprehensive in the sense that in addition to selecting from the questions below and perhaps adding a few extras from the last 6 weeks of class, it may draw from questions that were actually on the first and second midterm exams—but not questions from the first nine weeks that were not on either of those two exams) 


One calls for an individual’s attention by using  a) deictics   b)  predication  c)  vocatives   d) desideratives   e)  naming  


Because data presented to children by experience is replete with incomplete sentences, ungrammatical utterances, and other erroneous data, we now know that children learn their language from an inborn grammatical template that requires the child to learn what language it is exposed to, but not to analyze the data of experience, according to Susan Blum’s article on Chinese names.  a)  true   b)  false   c) true, but it was the lecturer and not Susan Blum who said it


As children mature, their linguistic abilities include a) an increasing dependence on context    b) increasing necessity for affect   c)  decreasing complexity of form and meaning  d)  progressive differentiation of forms and meanings


The process of language learning is  best viewed as a)  maturational    b)  chronological   c) largely desiderative   d) determined by sophistic process   e)  b & c   


Calling attention to contextual features by locating them with respect to the speaker is known as a) individual naming  b) deixis   c)  predication  d) feature content   e)  classification


Children can generally move their bodies in synchronized rhythm with the language they hear   a) by the second year of life  b)  by the end of the first month of life  c)  by the beginning of the second week after birth  d) by the end of the day they are born  e) when they enter the teen years


A film called Brain Sex discusses gendered behavior and highlights the crucial role of  a) hormones  b) genes  c) experience  d) actualization   e) language


At about two or three months most children begin a period in which they produce the sounds of the language they are exposed to as well as many sounds found in other languages.   This is called: a) sonic ejection  b) imitation   c)  interactional synchrony  d)  babbling   e)  intonation   f) a & c    g)  none of the above


Parents and other caregivers provide the developing child with language data and social contexts within which their abilities become focused and meaningful.  This is called  a)  language acquisition  b)  speech socialization  c) distal atrophy   d) predication   e)  verbal competence


In the film “First Contact”  inhabitants of inland New Guinea are shown on film making a first contact with   a) gold seeking Englishmen   b) Australians  

c)  missionaries from the United States   d) all of above   e)  a & c   f)  none of above


In order to understand what another person is saying, you must assume it makes sense and try to imagine a scenario that can explain it in sensible terms.   This is a variant of what has been called  a) The focal scenario proposal   b)  the masked guise technique   c) Miller’s law  d) the reality check   e) effortless understanding   f)  The Kearney stipulation   g)  the Pellican breef


One of the first soundcontrasts learned by an English speaking child is between   a) p & b   b) between p & t    c)  between p & a    d)   between p & s   

e) beween f & h


For the developing child:   a) production precedes comprehension  b) production and comprehension go hand in hand   c)  comprehension precedes production  

d)  active control precedes passive control   e)  vocalization precedes hearing   f)  none of the above


Single word utterances by children around the end of the first year are often called: 

a) pivot grammars   b)  introductory verbalization    c)  holophrastic speech   d)  nonsense syllables   e)  morphing pronouncements


The short video promoting Incarcerex illustrates   a) advertising at its finest    b) that not all drugs have serious side effects   c)  a humorous look at the “drug problem”   d) all of above   e)   b & c    f) none of above


Normally by the second year or earlier, the developing child’s earlier global and imagistic thought becomes more particularistic and syntactic.   The earliest linguistic evidence of syntactic unpacking of images comes with  a) one word grammars   b)  two word grammars    c)  pivot grammars   d)  three word grammars   

e)  industrial grammars 

f)  synto-grammars   g)  a & f     h)  b & c   i)  none of the above


True syntactic construction normally marks:   a)  differentiation of words into classes  

b)  overt conception of synesthesia   c)  recognition that form and function are interactive  

d)  recognition of abstract elements   e)   recognition that sequential ordering of words conveys meaning   f)  recognition that grammatical relations must be overtly expressed   g)   a, e & f     h)  b, c & d


Synthetic thinking   a)  is the ability to synthesize two kinds of thought, imagistic and syntactic  b)  is the ability to concentrate on whole signs when seen one at a time   c)  consists of a synthesis in which images are subdivided and linearized without losing sight of the global whole  d)  is necessary for culture and a mechanism for information storage in the brain   e)  confers philosophical endogamy on the developing child   f)  b & c  

g)  a, c & d


When a child’s speech involves a class of relatively few words used in high frequency but not co-occurring with each other in an utterance and relatively more words of  a larger class of mostly nouns and verbs that can co-occur in an utterance, we are dealing with   a) an out of body experience   b)  sapientization of collocation   c)  a pivot grammar   d) functional verification    e)  a & c   f)  a & d     


Melayu  a) is a variety of Malay deliberately developed as a Lingua Franca.  b) became the national language of Indonesia   c)  is currently  also known as Indonesian  d)  all of above   e)  a & c    f) none of above


McArthur in “Chinese, English, Spanish—and the Rest “ presents a seven tiered model seeking to:  a) represent the world’s languages in terms of size   b) represent the world’s languages in terms of clout   c)  seeks to represent the world’s languages in terms of evolutionary stages   d)  seeks to represent the world’s languages in terms of their ages   e)  a & b   f)  c & d    g)  none of the above


According to one researcher, complex sentence structure is acquired by the child  a) through synchronization of the morphology bone with the syntax bone  b) with the insertion of hormonal elements into Broca’s area of the brain  c)  through positional learning, extended by means of contextual generalization   d)  with the equalizing effect of competence and performance


In early stages of speech (one-or two-word constructions), morphological affixes denoting grammatical concepts and relations  a) are usually given syntactic expression   b) are generally omitted   c)  are finely tuned to contextual cues   d)  generally occur on only one member of  a morphological pair   e) lead into a propositional hierarchy  f)  provide essential linguistic nutrients


Linguistic form that overtly expresses grammatical meanings is informative and can,  therefore, be used in interactions with people who do not share all of one's experiences,  thus expanding social possibilities for a maturing child.   a)  true   b) false  


Where was First Contact filmed    a)  Australia   b)  New Guinea   c)  Hollywood   d)  France   e) China


In a study of English speaking children it was found that:  a)  the order of emergence of inflections is relatively stable across children  b) the age of emergence of inflections is relatively stable across children   c)   the order of emergence of inflections is not relatively stable across children   d)  the age of emergence of inflections is not relatively stable across children   e)  a & b  f)  b & d   g)  a & d    h)   none of the above


When rules learned in one context are extended to other contexts through analogy, this can be called   a)  context generalization   b) pernicious pedagogy

c) morphological colonization   d) rule by analogy   e)  arching and chaining 


Children’s vocabulary development may include generating their own words from pre-existing words, often creating verbs derived from nouns:   a)  true  

b)  false   c) it would be more accurate to say creating nouns from verbs  


Examples of an expanded definition of diglossia can be said to include:   a)  Spanish and Guarani in Paraguay   b) Hindi and Banarsi Boli in Banaras   c)  French and Albanian in Morocco   d) Pig Latin and English in the United States   e)  a & c    e)   a & b


It is generally true that children can imitate on demand many linguistic structures that they do not produce spontaneously in their own speech, suggesting that by imitation their production can precede their comprehension.   This is:   a)  true   b)  false    


It has been documented that Russian children at first omit all case distinctions,  a) using nominative forms in every context   b)  using genitive forms in every context   c) using instrumental forms in every context   d)  using dative forms in every context


Children generally learn the proper forms for expressing negation before they are able to understand and express underlying concepts and relations.  This is a) true  b) false


Battistela tells us that Late 19th century thinking in the US reflected the assimilationist ideology “one nation—several languages” :   a)  true   b)   false  


Washoe, the chimpanzee in the film was hesitant about using the sign for ‘dirty’.  This is:   a) true  b)  false  


The Gardiners report that Washoe the chimpanzee signed with a “chimp accent.”   This is   a) true  b) false 


In a film shown in class, Washoe the chimpanzee spoke a few words in English before being taught to sign  (‘mama’, ‘come here’, and ‘fish’).   This is:  a) true 

b)  false   c)  the words that Washoe spoke were very garbled in sound.


A person's knowledge and ability to use all the semiotic systems available to him/her as a member of a given sociocultural community has been termed   a) linguistic competence   b) linguistic performance   c)  communicative performance   d)  communicative competence  e) linguistic repertoire


Children in Japan learn that    a) expressing feelings is part of being polite   b) the door to heaven is always open unless one lies   c)  not expressing feelings is part of being polite    d)  a & c


Samoan children learning language acquire various linguistic means for expressing their feelings, and are encouraged to express both positive and negative feelings.  This is a) true   b) false


The origins of the English only movement included S.I. Hayakawa, a US Senator, attempting unsuccessfully to amend the US constitution to make English the official language of the US:   a)  true    b)   false    c)  true if we change the name S.I. Hayakawa to Joseph McCarthy.


There are no cultures in which it is polite to talk at the same time as one’s interlocutor for more than about 10 seconds.   This is  a) true   b)  false


A lie is a lie in any culture, and children rarely have to learn how best to lie and get away with it.  This is  a)  true   b)  false  


Elaboration of detail in a story to make it seem more real, and therefore more believable, is called:   a) detailing   b) pseudo-affectation   c)  verisimilitude   d)  virtual truth   e) Goebbeling   f)


Gossip is such a natural activity that we don’t have to learn how to do it culturally correctly.  This is  a) true  b)  false  

For any given culture, one has to learn how to gossip, how to recognize it, and how to evaluate it.  In America this includes:  a) who we can tell it to  b) when we can tell it  c)  where we can tell it, how to begin it   d)  how to tell it   e) it  how to pretend that it wasn't actually gossip   f)  why to tell it   g)  all of the above  

h)  a – e      i)  none of the above    


Among the following, one was not mentioned as a function of gossip:   a)  social control   b) boundary maintenance   c) inheritance   d) factionalism  

e)  conversational practice    f)  tension release   g)  gaining another’s confidence   h)  living vicariously   i)  socialization


Gossip has been studied among Tzotzil speakers by John Haviland, who created:  a) quite a flap when it turned out he could out-gossip anyone in town  

b)  a “Who’s Who” of Zinacantan   c)  several enemies by gossiping about their wives   d)  much ado about nothing


According to Chang, repeated question in Chinese criminal courtroom questioning are most likely to:  a) reflect the judge’s inability to hear the question   b) reflect an attempt to extract a confession or remorse from the defendant   c) reflect persuasion through repetition   d) reflect the natural process of voir dire  e)  reflect attempts to obtain information   f)   all of above   g)  a & b   h)  b & c


Among these people, speakers must learn to express their own attitudes ambiguously so as to avoid potential conflict:   a)  Russians   b)  Japanese  

c)  Samoans   d)  Andawamans  e) Edes


Emotions and attitudes can be signaled in the Samoan language by   a)  affect particles    b) articles   c)  pronouns   d) noun prefixes   e)  elementary phonemes  

f)  a – c   g)  b – d    h)  c – e    i)  all of the above    j)  none of the above.


Children acquire affect markers early in development, and they learn particles and pronouns that express sympathy for oneself before those that indicate empathy for others, when they grow up in   a)  Australia   b)  Samoa   c)  Norway    d)   Paraguay   e) Venezuela 


Generally children first become aware of different categories of people based on characteristics such as age and gender:   a) in first grade   b) when they hit puberty   c)  in familial interactions  d) while playing with their peers


An explicit ideolology of silence and speech different from that of “Western culture” in general is known to be exemplified among the   a)  Babylonians  

b)  Ancient Egyptians    c)  Early Christians   d)  Quakers   e)  Melanesians    f)   all of the above    g)   b & c


Whereas in “Western culture”  a network of associations link women with emotion, among the Kaluli of Papua, New Guinea, it is men who are stereotypically culturally constructed as the “emotional gender.”     a)  true    b)  false   


In the U.S. girls appear to defer to boys to the same extent that women do to men, because even at very early ages they are already socialized to produce and / or experience unequal encounters.  This statement is  a)  true   b) false   


Before they learn to take speaker turns, children in the U.S.  are nearly   a) a year old    b)  two years old   c) three years old   d)   four years old    e)   five years old 


Young children seem to have problems with multiparty interactions  involving children their age, but rarely when involving older children or adults.  This statement is  a)  true   b)  false


Because of "holistic"  thinking, when a young child doesn't understand an utterance, it is difficult for her or him to locate the specific segment causing problems:  

a)  true   b)  false


Children don’t have to learn to give "backchannel cues," appropriate signals to speakers indicating active listenership; that is something that one does instinctively.   This is  a)  true  b) false


Effectively reporting one's experiences is a skill that develops gradually in children.  This is   a) true  b) false


When a caretaker comments on the semantic content of a child’s words, it is called:  a) explaining   b)  meaning marking   c)  modeling   d)   flushing     


The acquisition of a language of wider currency in addition to one’s mother tongue is often referred to as   a) language shift   b)   bilingualism   c) creolization  

)  one-plus


 Loss of one language in favor of another, usually in the direction of acquiring the language of wider currency while losing the mother tongue is often called:  

a) language shift   b) creolization  c) prescriptivism   d)  literacy   e)  revitalization   f)  maintenance  


In “Western culture”  a network of associations link women with emotion, and among the Kaluli of Papua, New Guinea, also, women are stereotypically culturally constructed as the “emotional gender.”     a)   true    b)  false   


When subjects listen to tape-recorded speech in two versions of the same content, both spoken by the same fluent bilingual person this is  a) called the matched guise technique  b) designed to yield a “confusion index”   c)  supposed to measure attitudes towards languages and speakers   d)  confrontational   e) a & c  

f) b & d    g)  none of the above 


Using the matched guise technique, Lambert found that  Francophone subjects expressed preferences for English speakers except on ratings for  a) logic  

b)  attractiveness   c)  kindness   d) religiousness   e)   all of the above   f)  c & d   g) a & b    h)  none of the above


In Quebec a Parisian French guise was  a)  more favorably rated than Canadian French   b)  less favorably rated than Canadian French   c) was not tried  

d)  less favorably rated than Frankfort German.


Matched-guise experiments with children as speakers and as judges show that a) between the ages of 10 and 12 socially derived stereotyping according to the dominant pattern of the adults begins  b) children are generally more opinionated than adults    c)  children had a difficult time judging, but they had no problem speaking bilingually        


Speech accommodation theory suggests that   a)  when speakers have positive attitudes

toward interlocutors, they converge to the latter's speech styles  b)  speakers tend to maintain their own style, and may even exaggerate it, if they have negative opinions about co-participants  c)  speakers of a language tend to prefer their own language to that of another   d)  show a partial dichotomy with respect to accomodating language with which they are not familiar   e)  a & b    f) c & d   g)  a & d   h) none of the above


In the United States there was a time when it was believed that linguistic diversity strengthened the development and exchange of ideas.  This is   a)  true   b)  false


In the latter half of the nineteenth century laws were enacted requiring sole use of English in schools, and textbooks emphasized the co-occurrence of 'good talk' with good behavior, a moral character, and an industrious nature  This is  a) true   b)  false  


The 1963 Bilingual Education Act   a) provided federal funding to encourage bilingualism in the U.S.   b)  can be seen as legislation against bilingualism  

c)  encourages the revival of native American languages by providing federal funds   d)  is based on the maintenance model of bilingual education  


Speakers of Native American languages number  a)  approximately 25 million   b) nearly a million   c)  perhaps 250,000   d)  about  20,000   


The largest group of Native American language speakers are:   a)  Lakota   b)  Mohawk    c)  Cherokee  d)  Navajo    e)  Apache    f)  Hopi


Three creole languages have developed in the U.S.  in the past few hundred years:  a) Louisiana Creole  b)  Hawaiian Creole   c)   Algonquian Creole   d)  Gullah    e)  Haitian Creole   f)   Seminary Creole   g) Pidgin English    h)   a, b & d      i)   b, c  & d    j)   d, e & f   


Creole languages   a) probably arose as pidgins   b) are the first language of some speakers   c)  have a wide variety of use contexts   d)  all of the above   e)  a & b  f)  b & c    g) none of the above


Compound bilingualism is when  a) separate concepts are maintained for individual lexical items in each language  b)  the languages are integrated with lexical items under a single concept  c) each of two languages feeds into the other   d)  two languages are spoken in a single region


There is at least partially differentiated organization of languages in the brain of the bilingual, as strongly evidenced by many cases of :   a)   diglossia   b)  bilingual education   c)  aphasia   d)  intellectual gradation   e)   a & b   f)   c & d   g)   none of the above


Bilingualism has advantages for the brain, and there is considerable evidence that bilingual schooling aids learning abilities.   Perhaps this is because:  a) intellectual development is triggered by exposure to "discrepant events   b) certain relevant aspects of a problem may be brought to the bilingual child's attention by the availability of two different linguistic perspectives  c) the brains of bilinguals are generally larger than those of monolinguals  d) bilinguals eat more foods with C-keratonic than do monolinguals   e)  a & b   f)  c & d g)  none of the above


Some settings of stable bilingualism, with conservative and innovative varieties of the same language that function as formal and informal speech varieties side by side but in different social contexts, have been called by Charles Ferguson situations of:   a)  aphasia   b)  diglossia   c) language shift   d)  stapelia    e)  plattdeutch


In the film, “I’m British, But…”   personal identity linked to the following was/were illustrated:   a) dress   b) music   c) dance   d) language    e) place of residence   f)  all of the above   g) a & d  h) b & e  i)  none of above


Many sociolinguists believe that, in the absence of diglossia, bilingual communities will see:  a) a resurgence of bilingualism   b)  language death   c)  language shift   d)  linguistic uncertianty  e)  aphasia   4)  creeping socialism  


Joan Rubin studied bilingualism in Paraguay, where she found that the following factors influenced the choice of code made by a bilingual.  These were:  a)  location of interaction  b)   degree of participant intimacy   c) seriousness of the discourse   d)  age of the protagonists   e)  degree of formality of the situation   f)  how well the speaker knew both languages   g)   all of the above   h)  a, b, c & e   i)  b, c, d & f    j)  none of the above


In the film, “I’m British, But…”   the filmmaker was depicted in the company of   a) her mother   c) his father   d)  a squirrel   e)  a dog   f)  the Queen of England 

g) all of above


In the video called “Spin,”  George H.W. Bush is shown on the Larry King show.   a) true  b)  false   c) both true and false depending on the meaning of the word “true”


In Paraguay the use of Spanish predominates in rural areas and Guaraní is more frequently found in urban areas.  This is  a) true  b)  false 


The most common result of language contact is the borrowing of words, and this is most commonly accomplished with the mediation of :   a) contact reservoirs  

b)  lingua francas   c)  grammatical transference   d)  bilingual individuals   e)  sound symbolism   f) all of the above   g)  a & c   h)  none of above


Bilinguals have more linguistic resources at their disposal than do monolingual speakers, in part because words in each language express different meanings to a greater or lesser extent.    Bilinguals often employ strategies for maximizing the potential expressiveness of their linguistic repertoire, such as  a) not talking 

b) whispering in one language and shouting in the other   c) situational switching from one code to the other  d) changing from one language to the other within conversational episodes   e)  all of the above   f)  c & d   g)  none of the above


Code switching has numerous discourse and interactional functions, such as:  a) emphasizing  b)  marking discourse boundaries  c) expressing emotions or opinions  d) signaling group membership and identity  e) all of the above   f)   c & d   g ) a & d    h)  none of above


Researchers emphasize that code-switching is the result of:  a) inadequate competence in the two languages   b)  linguistic interference of one language with the other   c) lack of context sensitivity   d)  lack of rules relating one language to the other   e)  all of the above   f)  b & d   g)  none of the above


A language that is used by non-native speakers when interacting with speakers of different codes enabling members of diverse ethnic and linguistic groups to communicate with each other, is generally called a:   a) utilang   b)  pidgin   c)  creaole   d)  lingua franca  e) mixed language


The term ‘institution’ is often applied to:  a)  structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals   b)  customs and behavior patterns that are identified with a social purpose and with permanence c)  customs and behavior patterns important to a society  d)  particular formal organizations of government and public service   e) all of the above   f)   a & d   g)   b & c   h)  none of the above


When we produce a counterargument by pondering the hidden assumptions of an argument, we are  a) deconstructing    b)  snithesizing   c)   covered in hiatus  

d)  crazy like a fox  e) all of the above   f)   none of the above


In stratified societies, beliefs about the inherent superiority of some groups and inherent inferiority of others (potentially classified according to gender, class, race, age) are:   a) maintained and reproduced through linguistic messages   b) referred to as linguistic ideology  c) seldom retained beyond puberty  

d)  always eschewed by obfuscation   e)  a & c   f)  a & b   g)  c & d


Eric Wolf claims that The ability to bestow meanings--to 'name' things, acts and ideas—along with control of communication allowing the managers of ideology to lay down the categories through which reality is to be perceived is:   a)  very difficult  b)  similar to chaos   c)  a source of power   d)   the matrix of social invisibility


Interrelationships between language and hierarchical social models can also be demonstrated by contrasts in evaluations of speaking styles associated with different groups.  For example, women's speech is sometimes negatively judged because of its reputed use of numerous devices to hedge or disclaim speakers' opinions and generally to show deference to interlocutors.   Although it is positively perceived as "polite," women who employ this style are sometimes dismissed as inconsequential.   But women who use direct ("masculine") speech are sometimes criticized for being abrasive and aggressive.   This is  a) true   b)  false


A cross-cultural view of gender in speech quickly demonstrates that it is the speakers, female or male, who are socially evaluated and not their linguistic output in the abstract.   For instance, note that among the Malagasy, women's direct and sometimes confrontational style is denigrated, whereas men's inexplicit, vague, and deferential speech is praised, in fact, likened to that of the ancestors.  This is   a)  true   b)  false


According to Erickson, low-status speakers react to their situation by developing a

style identifiable as "powerless".   It is characterized by a) use of intensifiers  b)  use of hedges  c)  use of hesitations  d)  use of rising intonations  e)  use of polite forms  f)  all of the above  g)  a, b & c    h)  none of the above


In Japanese culture the so called "powerless" style is valued for all Japanese speakers.  Markers of this style are indicators of the speaker's basic humanness, expressed in terms of harmony and empathy.   This is   a)  true   b)  false  


In our society, institutional settings, wherein roles are distributed and interactions are managed in terms of pre-assigned rights and constraints, are:  a)  important in orienting, explaining, and influencing our lives   b)  self-fulfilling prophecies   c)   valuable as a doorway into the unconscious   d)  the major determinant of policy failure   e)  a never ending source of power for the underprivileged


In educational settings the authority of teachers in the classroom is primarily based on   a) age  b) proclivity   c)  sense of humor   d)  institutional position   e)  luck   f)  a & b   g)  a & c   h)  a & d   


In educational settings in the lower years adults frequently employ the following methods of control in the classroom:   a)  chaining   b)  arching   c)  writing  

d)  frying    e)  elevating    f) a & b   g)  a & c    h)  b & e    i)  none of the above


In legal institutional settings, especially in courtrooms many aspects of behavior are formalized:   a)  the physical environment and spatial positioning of participants is predetermined   b)  rights and obligations to speak are given according to role  c)  relevance of topics is narrowly defined.   d) each type of participant--judges, lawyers, and witnesses--has different speaking styles  e)  all of the above   f)  a, b & d


Edward Hermann and Noam Chomsky in their book Manufacturing Consent discuss the various "news filters" that determine what news is printed.  These filters include:  a) size, ownership, and profit orientation of the mass media   b)  advertising   c)  talking points    d)   situating of the news source  e)  flak and the enforcers   f)  police blotter   g)  b, c, e & f    h)   a, b, d & e   i) none of the above


Which of the following can be illustrated by examples of nonverbal communication from around the world:   a)  same sign – different meanings

b) different meanings – different signs   c)  same sign – similar meanings   d)  same meaning – similar signs   e)  same meaning – similar signs  f)  all of  the above 

g)  c & e    h)  none of the above  


The percentage of what we convey through non-verbal communication, as opposed to verbally is about   a)   11 percent   b)  68  percent   c)  99 percent  

d)  impossible to measure.


Nonverbal Communication involves all those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver:   a)  true   b) false    c) true for actual message value, but not for potential message value   d) there is no such thing as non-verbal communication.


Nonverbal communication can do the following to messages conveyed by verbal means:  a) substitute   b) contradict  c) complement  d) repeat   e)  all of the above    f)  a & d  g)  b & c  h) none of the above


Because there are different species of humans, we find that different societies have different facial expressions for fear, happiness, anger, surprise, disgust and sadness:   a) true   b)  false   c)  there are only a couple of species of humans today, but many different facial expressions for each emotion.


Around the world there is a great similarity among cultures for the display rules dictating when, how, and with what consequences nonverbal expressions will be exhibited.   a) true   b)  false   c)  It is hard to say as there is much nugatory obfuscation concerning the definition of non-verbal.


What makes humans cry, and who is allowed to see us cry are things that do not need to be learned as part of our cultural "education," but are rather part of our inheritance from our primate ancestors:  a) true   b) false    c) true, but our ancestors were not primates.


Fortunately the human eye has multiple functions.   Among them are:   a) regulating interactions   b)  seeing   c)  indicating degree of attentiveness, interest, and arousal  d)  crying   e)  all of the above   f)  all but  a   g)  none of the above


Some studies indicate that in most instances  a) women maintain more eye contact than do men   b)  women look at other women more and hold eye contact longer with one another than men do with one another   c)  women touch men more than men touch women in general social interaction  d)  all the above  e)   a & b  

f)  a & c    g)  none of the above


Of the five senses the earliest to mature in social terms is   a)  smell  b)  sight  

c)  hearing   d)  touch    e)  taste  


Women initiate hugs and embraces, according to studies reported in this class:   a) more often than men to women  b) more often than men do to other men 

c) more often than men do to children   d)  all of the above   e)  a & c   f)  a & b   c)  none of the above


Elements that have been found to affect the meaning we give to smell include  a)  strength of the small in relation to competing odors    b)  the perceived relationship of the parties involved   c)   the smell’s distance from the other person   d) the relative age of the smeller and the interlocutor   e)  the time of the year    f)   all of the above   g)  a, b & c    h)  b, c & d   


Americans represent an example of a culture that tends to a) appreciate natural body scents   b) be uncomfortable with natural body smells   c) hate the smell of fish    d) wear face masks to stay in tune with natural odors.  


In Japan, at any formal or semiformal function, the person sitting closest to the door is  a) the person with the most status   b)  the right-hand man of the person with the most status  c)  the person with the least status   d)  the best friend of the person with the least status  


Chronemics is   a) the study of the use of  space to allocate authority   b)  the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication  c) the study of time-touching   

d)  the perception of aliviance in time   e)  willingness to wait for a close friend   f)  all of the above   g)  a & c 

A culture’s use of time can profitably be seen from the perspectives of  a) informal time   b) perceptions of past, present and future  c) the time it takes to go across the culture   d) cladistic warrenting   e) all of the above   f)   a & b   g)  a, c & d   h)   none of above


According to some, people who rush are suspected of trying to cheat:   a) in the U.S   b)   in England   c) in Africa


There is a direct connection, research tells us, a)  between the time of day and the time it takes to get drink a glass of water   b)  between the culture’s concept of time and the esteem with which soothsayers are held   c) between the speed that people walk and their culture’s concept of time  d) all of the above   e)  b & c  

f)  none of the above


Past Oriented cultures include  a)  British   b) Chinese  c)  Native Americans    d)) Filipinos  e) Americans    f)  Latin Americans   g) all of the above  

h) a, b & c     i)  c, d & f   


Present Oriented cultures include   a)  Chinese   b)  Native Americans   c)   Filipinos    d)  Americans   e)  Latin Americans    f)  British   g)   all of the above   

h) c & d     i)  c & e     j)  none of the above


Future Oriented cultures include a)  Chinese   b)  Native Americans   c)   Filipinos   d)  Americans   e)  Latin Americans    f)  British   g)   all of the above  

h) c & d    i)  c & e     j)  none of the above


E.T. Hall proposed a classification of time as a form of communication, which included the categories:  a)  Monochronic (M‑time)   b)  Polychronic (P‑time) Classifications  c) Catachronic (C-time)   d)  Multichronic   (M-time)    e)  Animachronic   (A-time)   f)  all of the above   g)  a & b   h)   c & d    i)  a, c & e  

j) none of above