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HTML: Special Characters


HTML Entities and/or ISO Latin-1 codes can be placed in source code like any other alphanumeric characters to produce special characters and symbols that cannot be generated in HTML with normal keyboard commands.

For example, to render Düsseldorf the HTML source should read

Düsseldorf or Düsseldorf

While many similar lists are available on the Web (run your favorite search engine using "ISO Latin" or "HTML Entities"), none I've seen account for the standard character sets of different operating systems (e.g. Windows vs. DOS vs. Macintosh, etc.); this list should produce the same results on all platforms.

Punctuation HTML Entity
(case sensitive)
ISO Latin-1 code name or meaning
– – en dash
— — em dash
¡ ¡ ¡ inverted exclamation
¿ ¿ ¿ inverted question mark
" " " quotation mark
“ “ left double curly quote
” ” right double curly quote
'   ' apostrophe (single quote)
‘ ‘ left single curly quote
’ ’ right single curly quote
«
»
«
»
«
»
guillemets (used as quotation marks in some languages, e.g., French)
 
(Its there, but you can't see it!)
    non-breaking space
Symbols  
& & & ampersand
¢ ¢ ¢ cent
© © © copyright
÷ ÷ ÷ divide
> > > greater than
< &lt; &#60; less than
µ &micro; &#181; micron
· &middot; &#183; middle dot
&para; &#182; pilcrow (paragraph sign)
± &plusmn; &#177; plus/minus
&euro; &#8364; Euro
£ &pound; &#163; British Pound Sterling
® &reg; &#174; registered
§ &sect; &#167; section
&trade; &#153; trademark
¥ &yen; &#165; Japanese Yen
Diacritics  
á
Á
&aacute;
&Aacute;
&#225;
&#193;
lower-case "a" with acute accent
upper-case "A" with acute accent
à
À
&agrave;
&Agrave;
&#224;
&#192;
lower-case "a" with grave accent
upper-case "A" with grave accent
â
Â
&acirc;
&Acirc;
&#226;
&#194;
lower-case "a" with circumflex
upper-case "A" with circumflex
å
Å
&aring;
&Aring;
&#229;
&#197;
lower-case "a" with ring
upper-case "A" with ring
ã
Ã
&atilde;
&Atilde;
&#227;
&#195;
lower-case "a" with tilde
upper-case "A" with tilde
ä
Ä
&auml;
&Auml;
&#228;
&#196;
lower-case "a" with diaeresis/umlaut
upper-case "A" with diaeresis/umlaut
æ
Æ
&aelig;
&AElig;
&#230;
&#198;
lower-case "ae" ligature
upper-case "AE" ligature
ç
Ç
&ccedil;
&Ccedil;
&#231;
&#199;
lower-case "c" with cedilla
upper-case "C" with cedilla
é
É
&eacute;
&Eacute;
&#233;
&#201;
lower-case "e" with acute accent
upper-case "E" with acute accent
è
È
&egrave;
&Egrave;
&#232;
&#200;
lower-case "e" with grave accent
upper-case "E" with grave accent
ê
Ê
&ecirc;
&Ecirc;
&#234;
&#202;
lower-case "e" with circumflex
upper-case "E" with circumflex
ë
Ë
&euml;
&Euml;
&#235;
&#203;
lower-case "e" with diaeresis/umlaut
upper-case "E" with diaeresis/umlaut
í
Í
&iacute;
&Iacute;
&#237;
&#205;
lower-case "i" with acute accent
upper-case "I" with acute accent
ì
Ì
&igrave;
&Igrave;
&#236;
&#204;
lower-case "i" with grave accent
upper-case "I" with grave accent
î
Î
&icirc;
&Icirc;
&#238;
&#206;
lower-case "i" with circumflex
upper-case "I" with circumflex
ï
Ï
&iuml;
&Iuml;
&#239;
&#207;
lower-case "i" with diaeresis/umlaut
upper-case "I" with diaeresis/umlaut
ñ
Ñ
&ntilde;
&Ntilde;
&#241;
&#209;
lower-case "n" with tilde
upper-case "N" with tilde
ó
Ó
&oacute;
&Oacute;
&#243;
&#211;
lower-case "o" with acute accent
upper-case "O" with acute accent
ò
Ò
&ograve;
&Ograve;
&#242;
&#210;
lower-case "o" with grave accent
upper-case "O" with grave accent
ô
Ô
&ocirc;
&Ocirc;
&#244;
&#212;
lower-case "o" with circumflex
upper-case "O" with circumflex
ø
Ø
&oslash;
&Oslash;
&#248;
&#216;
lower-case "o" with slash
upper-case "O" with slash
õ
Õ
&otilde;
&Otilde;
&#245;
&#213;
lower-case "o" with tilde
upper-case "O" with tilde
ö
Ö
&ouml;
&Ouml;
&#246;
&#214;
lower-case "o" with diaeresis/umlaut
upper-case "O" with diaeresis/umlaut
ß &szlig; &#223; ess-tsett
ú
Ú
&uacute;
&Uacute;
&#250;
&#218;
lower-case "u" with acute accent
upper-case "U" with acute accent
ù
Ù
&ugrave;
&Ugrave;
&#249;
&#217;
lower-case "u" with grave accent
upper-case "U" with grave accent
û
Û
&ucirc;
&Ucirc;
&#251;
&#219;
lower-case "u" with circumflex
upper-case "U" with circumflex
ü
Ü
&uuml;
&Uuml;
&#252;
&#220;
lower-case "u" with diaeresis/umlaut
upper-case "U" with diaeresis/umlaut
ÿ &yuml; &#255; lower-case "y" with diaeresis/umlaut
´
`
  &#180;
&#96;
acute accent with no letter
grave accent/reversed apostrophe with no letter

Notes:

  1. The &quot; entity was mistakenly omitted from the HTML 3.2 specification. While use of &quot; generates error reports when validating against 3.2, browsers have continued to recognize the entity and its use is generally safe (sticklers may wish to use &#34; instead). The omission has been corrected in the HTML 4.0 specification.

  2. The non-breaking space (&nbsp; or &#160;) can be used not only to prevent the separation of words by line wraps, but also to force a space equal in size to a keyboard/spacebar space (useful for indentation or wider word separation) or to "hold" space in the empty cell of a table (as in the table above).

  3. The middle dot (&middot; or &#183;) can be used as a bullet and embedded anywhere in text. Because it is equal in size to a period, however, it may be necessary to apply <B> </B> or tags to enhance its graphic effect (use of <FONT SIZE="x"> </FONT> or <BIG> </BIG> elements is not recommended, as these will alter the character's vertical spacing relative to other characters in the same line).


  Updated 2010 August 18
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