TARL Special Archives houses numerous manuscripts, field records, institutional records, correspondence, reports, photographs, and videos relating mainly to Texas archeology. These are available for examination by qualified researchers, but many of these documents and photographs are in fragile condition and must be handled with extreme care.
As time and funding allows, we make acid-free copies of the most fragile documents and new prints of the older photographs so we can avoid handling the originals. We also hope to make some of the most significant manuscripts and photographs available on this website.
The TARL Special Archives are organized in five groups.
Click on the number at the left to see information about each publication.
GROUP 1: Individual Manuscript Collections
These individual collections are predominately associated with avocational archeologists and others who collected archeological materials prior to the 1970s. They were donated to TARL by the conscientious individuals who either collected the materials or persuaded those who did the original collecting that these materials have great research value to the prehistory of Texas and that TARL was the appropriate research facility to house such collections.
A. E. ANDERSON MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION
Andrew Elliot Anderson (1886-1944) was a civil engineer and surveyor who grew up in Central Texas and moved to Brownsville in the early part of the century. Early on, he had an interest in archeology and became an avocational archeologist in the 1930s. His training in survey work and engineering provided a scientific background with which he documented and collected sites in the lower Gulf Coast of Texas (predominately Cameron County) and northern Mexico as well as some other areas of Texas. He plotted many of these sites on maps of the areas that are now in the Map Room files.
DAVID W. CHASE MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION
David W. Chase was in military service and interested in archeology while overseas. He collected pottery from various sites in Japan and later donated his collection and records to TARL.
A. T. JACKSON MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION
A. T. (Alvin Thomas) Jackson was the Archeologist in Charge under J. E. Pearce during the 1920s to 1930s and then under Dr. J. Gilbert McAllister, Director of Research, during the late 1930s for the WPA and University of Texas at Austin. He continued to work in Texas archeology with the university in the 1940s. Jackson is well known for developing field methods and excavation techniques that were new and innovative for the times and allowed for better recovery and documentation of archeological field work. The Center for American History (formerly the Barker Texas History Center) at the University of Texas at Austin houses the majority of Jackson's papers making up 40 linear feet that focus on historic mills in Texas (see the inventory list "Alvin Thomas Jackson papers on file at Barker 1774-1973).
FOREST KIRKLAND MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION
Considered one of the best commercial artists in the Southwest, Forest Kirkland (1942) was also a master in the use of watercolors. He applied his talents to recording exact copies of pictograph and petroglyph sites in Texas. Forest Kirkland and his wife Lula, both charter members of the Dallas Archeological Society, devoted much of their time beginning in the early 1930s to recording Indian rock art in Texas. His reproductions are the basis for The Rock Art of Texas Indians of which he and W. W. Newcomb, Jr. are co-authors. The Kirkland collection of artifacts, now at TARL, consist of East Texas Caddo pottery, basket fragments, woven fiber items such as sandals, cords, mats, and bracelets. The records include specimen inventories, TARL collection records, and his biographical sketch.
ALEX D. KRIEGER MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION
Alex Krieger (1911-1991) was a widely respected American archeologist and cultural historian. He was at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) from 1939 to 1956 first as a Supervisor of the UT Works Progress Administration (WPA) Laboratory in Austin, and later as a Research Scientist in the Research in Anthropology division. Krieger contributed significantly to New World archeology including Caddoan prehistory, knowledge of Texas prehistory and history, and the prehistory of northern Mexico. He also worked in the western United States after leaving U. T. to teach at the University of California Berkeley, the University of Southern California, the University of Oregon and, finally, at the University of Washington where he retired. Dee Ann Story wrote Alex Krieger's obituary for American Antiquity 58(4): 614-621) in 1993. These records represent his time at the University of Texas at Austin and consist of 5 feet 9 inches of manuscripts, research notes and reports, administrative records, correspondence, reprints, newsclippings, photographs, and his associations with various agencies and organizations.
GEORGE C. MARTIN MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION
George C. Martin conducted work along the Texas Coastal areas. For many years he collected archeological materials most of which are now at the Witte Museum in San Antonio. TARL has some of his collections and records as described below.
WAYNE B. NEYLAND ARCHIVES
Wayne B. Neyland was an avocational archeologist in the Houston area. His profession was journalist but he took up archeology as a hobby during the 1950s and 1960s. Much of his effort was spent salvaging sites that were being destroyed by looters or acts of nature. He became involved with the Texas Archeological Society and the Houston Archeological Society. He donated his records, photographs, and collections to TARL in the early 1970s. This drawer consists of his site file records and records relating to the sites and his work as an avocational.
J. E. PEARCE MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION
Known as the Father of Texas Archeology, James Edwin Pearce (1868-1939) became interested in Texas archeology in the early part of the 20th century after achieving a Masters degree in history from the University of Texas. He spent two summers at the University of Chicago which led him into the study of anthropology. From 1901 to 1915, Pearce served as Austin High School principal. In the fall of 1912 Pearce accepted a position teaching elementary courses in the Department of Institutional History and in 1914 was appointed adjunct professor of sociology without pay. This appointment eventually led him into a full time position in 1917. Two years later, under his efforts, the Department of Institutional History was changed to the Department of Anthropology. It was during the years from 1919 to 1938 that Pearce developed the first anthropology department at a university in Texas. He also worked extensively during this time acquiring anthropological and scientific collections for a state museum. He was the major factor in establishing the Texas Memorial Museum of which he became director in 1938 just prior to his death. A more in-depth biography of J. E. Pearce can be found in Helen Donovan Barnard's thesis entitled Early History of Research in Texas Archaeology by the Department of Anthropology, and the History of the Anthropology Museum of the University of Texas completed in 1939 from the University of Texas at Austin.
CYRUS RAY MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION
Cyrus Ray was a osteopathic surgeon and avocational archeologist in the Lubbock area. Cyrus Ray was the founder of the Texas Archeological Society (T.A.S.) in the 1920s. He also established the Annual meeting of the T.A.S. which was for a long time the only venue for Texas archeologists and avocationals. Dr. Ray was also responsible for the T.A.S. Bulletin and was its editor for many years. This collection consists of his correspondence with various individuals and regarding Texas archeology and other topics of Dr. Ray's interests.
CYRUS RAY COLLECTION AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY
These papers document the Cyrus Ray collection held at Texas Tech University. The correspondence file documents the exchange of information between repositories concerning his collections. The inventory represents the collection at Texas Tech and is a photocopy of those files.
RAYMOND RING, JR. ARCHIVES
Raymond Ring, Jr. is an avocational archeologist in the Houston area. He conducted a substantial amount of field work and collection in the Houston area predominantly in the 1970s. These materials he donated to TARL for future research.
E. B. SAYLES MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION
Edward (Ted) B. Sayles was a well known archeologist in the American Southwest who was associated with the Gila Pueblo Archaeological Foundation and, later, the Arizona State Museum. He also conducted a considerable amount of work in Texas during the 1920s and 1930s. A great deal of his work in Texas was in the west around Abilene. He recorded more than a thousand sites and amassed a considerable collection over the years, mostly from surface context. Sayles described the system he used for recording sites in his 1935 publication An Archaeological Survey of Texas, Medallion Papers, No. 17 (Figure 4). The Sayles records contain a number of manuscripts on his investigations, some of which were published in the Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society (see Bibliography). Most of the Sayles collection has been on long-term loan to the University of Texas at Austin but is now officially part of TARL's collections.
E. H. SELLARDS MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION
Elias Howard Sellards was primarily a geologist who was the Director of the Texas Memorial Museum from 1944 to 1960. He compiled a great deal of geological and archeological data throughout Texas with the help of his highly skilled research associate, Glen Evans. Evans, a true natural historian, headed the Texas WPA Paleontological and Mineralogical Survey as well as conducted the vast majority of archeological and paleontological field work for Sellards through the museum. Together they documented and collected a wealth of environmental, paleontological, and anthropological data throughout Texas for the Texas Memorial Museum.
These collections represent donations or exchanges from other individuals or institutions to TARL over the years. Most are records associated with donated artifacts. Each individual record group does not constitute more than 1 linear inch of documents.
GROUP 3: Institutional Archive Collections
This group represents the archives of public and private institutions and organizations that have been associated with Texas archeology and the University of Texas at Austin. The records document Texas archeology as it developed over this century and presents some of the individuals that devoted their energy to this development.
WORKS PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION ARCHIVES
The Works Projects Administration (W.P.A.) was authorized by Congress and created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935 and terminated in 1943 as a result of wartime prosperity. The name Works Progress Administration was changed to Works Projects Administration in 1939. It was created as a major part of the New Deal work-relief programs to provide jobs and a sense of self-worth to millions of Americans during the Great Depression. The W.P.A. files at TARL document archeological work done by Texans both in the field and in the lab. Some of the largest archeological excavations in Texas are represented by W.P.A. projects, many of which have yet to be written up and fully analyzed. National Youth Administration (N.Y.A.) funding also provided students with jobs in archeological studies during this period of time as well.
DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY FIELD BOOKS
These field notebooks date from 1928 to 1938; a period when J. E. Pearce was chairman of the Department of Anthropology. The notebooks document field work conducted by the Anthropology Department from 1938 to 1941. The field notebooks record site numbers, counties visited, the names of owners of the ranches and farms surveyed, inventory of materials from the sites, worker accounts, time lists, photo numbers, visitor list, vouchers, and general comments by the field supervisors. The reports are written by the following supervisors: A. M. Wilson (1930), H. B. Ramseur and Wilson (1930), A. T. Jackson (1930-35, 37), M. M. Reese (1931), A. M. Woolsey (1932-33, 35-37), W. R. Goldschmidt (1932, 34), Woolsey, Ardel and Moore (1933), W. V. Huskey (1934), Jack Laughlin (1934-35), and Perry Newell (1939-41).
MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY
The Museum of Anthropology was informally established as a part of the Department of Anthropology by J. E. Pearce in the 1920s. Pearce wanted to focus on Texas prehistory and was able to purchase many collections and accept donations for the Anthropology museum. From 1919 to 1936, the Museum of Anthropology kept handwritten accession notebooks (U. T. Anthropology Dept. Numerical Catalog of Specimens) that were transferred to typed Collection inventory books (Texas Archaeology Prior to 1936; Catalog 1). When the Texas Memorial Museum (TMM) was established in 1936, many of the out-of-state and historic Texas collections were given to them while the majority of prehistoric Texas materials stayed in the Anthropology Museum. This group consists of Museum of Anthropology catalog notebooks I through VII and the Visitor Registration from 1934 to 1947. The Catalogs 1 through 4 represent an inventory of the museum's collections prior to the WPA period. Catalogs 5 through 7 are collections that came to the museum as a result of the WPA excavations 1937-1941. The WPA work had very specific guidelines to follow resulting in field numbers and museum numbers. The Museum switched their system to a 3x5 card format listed as "Key to Collection Cards" around 1940. These cards are in the Records Room 2 in card file drawer cabinets. The Museum Registration notebook is a signed list of visitors who came to the museum between November 16th, 1934 and December 23, 1947.
CENTRAL TEXAS ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY
The Central Texas Archeological Society was established in 1934 by Frank Watt. The society disbanded in 1942 due to World War II but Frank Watt re-established the group in 1966. The society is still active in the Central Texas area. TARL has copies of the first newsletters from October 1939 through May 1941 and then starting in December, 1966 through November, 1977. The records include correspondence from this early period.
COUNCIL OF TEXAS ARCHEOLOGISTS
These files consist of the records of the Council of Texas Archeologists (CTA) when it was first established in 1939. The CTA files include correspondence, the CTA Constitution and By-Laws, Texas Archaeology News, and miscellaneous Anthropology Department letters from 1939 to 1941. In 1977, the CTA was re-established. These records are being passed to TARL for curation.
GROUP 4: TARL Historic and Administrative Records
This group consists of records that have been compiled by TARL staff beginning in the 1960's and document TARL's activities with both in-house research as well as outside associations. Two of these groups, the Biographical Files and Correspondence, are active records and continue to grow. The majority, however, are closed records groups that have not been active since the mid-1980's.
These files were compiled by various individuals over the years of work by the Anthropology Department and Research in Anthropology personnel. There are reprints, correspondence, manuscripts, news articles and clippings, photographs, maps, drawings, and notes.
TARL ARCHEOLOGY SPECIAL RECORDS
These records have been pulled together by various staff at TARL since the 1960s and include reference data as a research tool for students and researchers using TARL. The files have not been added to since ca. 1980.
FOREIGN (MEXICO - VENEZUELA)
These records are associated with various countries outside the United States that relate to collections held at TARL as well as research by TARL staff, students, or Research Associates over the years.
AREAL SURVEYS (INCLUDING JACKSON, ARNOLD, HUGHES)
The areal surveys represent a valuable source of early archeological reconnaissance in Texas. The files are arranged chronologically and range from 1919 to the 1970s. The subgroups that make up this series are Early Archeological Surveys in Texas, G. E. Arnold Surveys, Tidelands, Gulf Basin, Trinity River, Upper Brazos River, and Other. The first sub-group consists of the earliest notes on survey work conducted by J. E. Pearce and his foremen and start at 1918. The next sub-group is that of G. E. Arnold who was a research archeologist at the University of Texas at Austin. Arnold conducted surveys, predominantly in the East Texas piney woods area, under the auspices of the Works Progress Administration from 1930-1941. Hyo-Jai Im did his Masters Thesis on the analysis of the Arnold survey collections and records on file at TARL. The subgroups Tidelands, Gulf Basin, Trinity River and Upper Brazos River are projects conducted by the River Basins Survey and the Texas Archeological Salvage Project during the 1950s through the 1970s. The last subgroup consists of various archeological reconnaissance projects conducted by state or federal agencies or the University of Texas at Austin.
BIOGRAPHICAL FILES(1 ft. 6 in. linear)
TARL HUMAN OSTEOLOGY RECORDS
(l foot, 6 inches linear)
TARL SPECIAL STUDIES
(1 foot, 8 inches linear)
TARL ANNUAL REPORTS
(1 foot linear)
<(10 feet linear)
GROUP 5: Photographic and Audiovisual Collection
This group represents a very unique and substantial record of Texas archeology in the form of visual and audio formats. The photographic collection dates back to the early 1920s up to present day while the audiovisual collection begins in the 1980s to present. The photographic collection is so extensive that it cannot be detailed in this format; only the TARL General Lab photograph categories are presented here.
SITE AND COUNTY PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTIONS
(100 feet linear)
The 60 file drawers comprising the photo collection contain approximately 72,468 black-and-white and color prints with negatives. Of this number, 1,193 are glass plate negatives (actual count). The color slides are contained in over 150 notebooks with polypropulene slide holder sleeves and number more than 40,000. The nitrate negatives are housed in a freezer and are estimated to be 4,776 in number.
The total number of counties in Texas is 254 and of these, 235 are represented in the photo collection. Other states included in the collection are contained in two file cabinets and include Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Foreign countries represented in one file cabinet are Mexico and four negatives from Manitoba, Canada.
GENERAL LAB PHOTOGRAPHS
(2 feet linear)
AUDIO TAPE RECORDINGS AND ORAL HISTORY TRANSCRIPTS
The collection of cassette tape recordings along with transcripts are contained in these files. Not all recordings are transcribed. In some cases only the transcript exists. When related to a project or specific archeological site, these documents are filed in the appropriate county file.
VIDEO TAPE RECORDINGS
TARL has only recently been accepting video tape recordings and recognizes the great value for researchers and the interested public to view archeological excavations, documentaries, and conference tapings with this technology. This collection consists of interviews with Texas archeologists (professional and avocational), public outreach projects, and site excavations. We would like to encourage anyone to donate video tapings of archeological related topics for use by researchers, students, organizations, and the general public.